Half of the Chapter Notes for Exam 3
Half of the Chapter Notes for Exam 3 PSY1001
U of M
Popular in Intro to Psych
Popular in Psychlogy
This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Whitley Lubeck on Sunday April 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY1001 at University of Minnesota taught by Briggs in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 116 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psych in Psychlogy at University of Minnesota.
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Date Created: 04/12/15
Chapter Fourteen PERSONALITY p 542579 Jack and Oskar identical twins almost same scores on personality inventory one was jew raise in caribbean other was follower of hitler raised in czechoslovakia so similar yet so different no contact how far to generalize case studies to other people Singlecause explanations remember that personality is multiply determined 0 genetic prenatal parenting peer influences life stressors plain old luck good and bad Fundamental attribution error tendency to attribute too much of others behavior to their dispositions including personalities and not enough to the situations they confront Personality people s typical ways of thinking feeling and behaving M relatively enduring predisposition that influences our behavior across many situations introversion aggressiveness and conscientiousness Nomothetic Approach approach to personality that focuses on identifying general laws that govern the behavior of all individuals 0 most modern personality research ldioqraphic Approach approach to personality that focuses on identifying the unique configuration of characteristics and life history experiences within a person o most case studies Theories aim to o explain both commonalities and differences among people in their personalities 0 how develop a conscience but why some have strong conscience than others Behaviorgenetic methods 0 genetic factors 0 shared environmental factors parent to all children 0 nonshared environmental factors parent to one children Monozygotic identical one egg Dizygotic fraternal different eggs o identical and same suggest genetic influence o identical and not the same suggest nonshared environmental influences o correlation is all less than 10 assuming 10 is 100 percent then nonshared environmental influences must play a key role in personality at the same time twins split apart portrayed similar personality traitsgenetic influence tell LITTLE about which genes are related to personality sociability extent to which people enjoy being with others molecular genetic study investigation that allows researchers to pinpoint genes associated with specific personality traits 1 genes code for proteins that in turn often influence the functioning of neurotransmitters like dopamine and serotonin 2 The functioning of many neurotransmitters is associated with certain personality traits people with low levels of serotonin activity tend to be more impulsive and aggressive o examine linkage between specific genes and known genetic markers on each chromosome 0 novelty seeking a trait that refers to the tendency to search out and enjoy new expenences Sigmund Freud s Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality observations led to Freud to conclude that many mental disorders were produced by psychological rather than physiological factors 0 Psychic determinism the assumption that all psychological events have a cause 0 inner power that lies outside our awareness 0 key influences stem from childhood experiences 0 Symbolic Meaning behaviors are symbolic break piece of chalk says something about you c Unconscious Motivation rarely understand why we do it o tip of the iceberg thats the conscious part that we understand includes the ego underneath is the superego and then the id which are the unconsciou parts Structure of personality give rise to our personality and differences in strengths largely account for differences in personality 0 ld reservoir of our most primitive impulses including sex and aggression o Pleasure princi tendency of the id to strive for immediate gratification the word no isn t in the vocabulary 0 egg boss of personality psyche s executive and principal decision maker 0 interacting with real world and finding ways to resolve demands 0 reality principle tendency of the ego to postpone gratification until it can find an appropriate outlet want to scream in class because lecture is frustrating but suppress it and wait for appropriate location 0 Defense Mechanisms unconscious maneuvers intended to minimize anxiety I Repression motivated forgetting of emotionally threatening memories or impulses we forget because we want to forget past events I Denial refusal to acknowledge current events in our lives ex marriage I Regression the act of returning psychologically to a younger and typically simpler and safer age sucking the thumb I Reactionformation transformation of an anxietyprovoking emotion into its opposite emotion we see if the opposite of what the person feels unconsciously I Proiection unconscious attribution of our negative characteristics to others I Displacement directing an impulse from a socially unacceptable target onto a safer and more socially acceptable target day at work to a punching bag at the gym afterwards I Rationalization providing a reasonablesounding explanation for unreasonable behaviours or for failures barked why miss our dog o lntellectualization allows us to avoid anxiety by thinking about abstract and interpersonal idea I Sublimation transforming a socially unacceptable impulse into an admired goal set fires in childhoods gt becoming chief of local fire dep Superego our sense of morality Stages of Psychosexual Development Oral Stage 1218 months psychosexual stage that focuses on the mouth sucking and drinking dependent on others for reassurance o for adults overeating drinking smoking Anal Stage 18 months to 3 yrs psychosexual stage that focuses on the toilet Phallic Stage 3 6 years psychosexual stage that focuses on the genitals o Oedipus complex conflict during the phallic stage in which boys supposedly love their mothers romantically and want to eliminate their fathers as rivals 0 Girls penis envy desire to possess one just like Daddy Latency Stage 6 to 12 years psychosexual stage in which sexual impulses are submerged into the unconscious opposite sex yucky cooties Genital Stage age 12 psychosexual stage in which sexual impulses awaken and typically begin to mature to romantic attraction toward others Scientifically Evaluated unfalsifiability theories unable to refute 5 year old boys say they are sexually repulsed by mother but response is that it is at an unconscious level then Failed Predictions no association with toilet training practices and adult personality Questionable conception of the unconscious oceanmoon leads to picking the laundry detergent Tide but no one admits thats why they picked it these studies support that we are unaware but don t provide evidence Reliance on unrepresentative samples made generalizations to rest of humanity that should not 0 his methods of inquiry were idiographic his theory nomothetic studies small number of individuals in depth but applied to all humanity Flawed Assumption of shared environmental influence actually plays a scant role in adult personality neoFreudian theories theories derived from Freud s model but with less emphasis on sexuality as a driving force in personality and more optimism regarding the prospects for long term personality growth 0 unconscious influences o the importance of early experience in shaping personality Style of life according to Alfred Adler each person s distinctive way of achieving superiority Inferioritv complex feelings of low selfesteem that can lead to overcompensation for such feelings trying to dominate over others in everything Carl Jung Collective unconscious according to Jung our shared storehouse of memories that ancestors have passed down to use across generations cultural similarities from myths and legends Archetype crossculturally universal symbols explain the similarities among people in their emotional reactions to many features of the world Karen Horney did not believe in the penis envy theory but rather that inferiorness of women comes from the excessive dependency on men Theories of Freud Adler Jung difficult to falsify Jung ruling out rival hypotheses Freud s Followers 0 pointed out anatomy isn t always destiny when it comes to psychological differences between the sexes 0 consider social influences Behaviorism theory of learning and personality Radical Behaviorists view personality as under the control of hence why personality differs 0 genetic factors 0 contingencies in the environment reinforcers and punishers o believe all of our actions are products of pre existing causal influences social learning theorists theorist who emphasize thinking as a cause of personality 0 ex we perceive people as threatening gt we ll be hostile and suspicious in return 0 reciprocal determinism tendency for people to mutually influence each other s behavior observational learning much of learning occurs by watching others Locus of control extent to which people believe that reinforcers and punishers lie inside or outside their control 0 internal life events due largely to own efforts and personal characteristics I less prone to life stressors because they believe they can solve problems on their own 0 External produce of chance and fate I all forms of psychological distress depression anxiety Humanistic Models third force 0 SelfActualization drive to develop our innate potential to the fullest possible extent 0 core motive in humanistic models 0 Carl Rogers believed we could all achieve our full potential for emotional fulfillment if only society allowed it personality consists of o Organism innate blueprint genetically influenced 0 set of beliefs about who we are 0 Conditions of Worth according to Rogers expectations we place on ourselves for appropriate and inappropriate behavior I incongruence result of conditions of worth incongruence between self and organism inconsistency between our personalities and innate dispositions c we are not longer our genuine selves because we are acting in ways that are inconsistent with it Abraham Maslow focused on individuals who were selfactualized 0 Peak experience transcendent moment of intense excitement and tranquility marked by a profound sense of connection to the world Trait Models examine the question of what makes up our personality not what causes it Factor Analysis statistical technique that analyzed the correlations among responses on personality inventories and other measures 0 Reduces the enormous diversity of traits to a much smaller number of underlying traits Big Five five traits that have surfaced repeatedly in factor analyses of personality measures 0 Was uncovered using the Lexical Approach approach proposing that the most crucial features of personality are embedded in our language 0 If personality is importantits likely that we talk about it a lot Extraversion Extraverted people tend to be social and lively Neuroticism neurotic people tend to be tense and moody Agreeableness agreeable people tend to be sociable and easy to get along wih Conscientiousness conscientious people tend to be careful and responsible Openness to Experience tend to be intellectually curious and unconventional in their interests and outlook on the world 0 OCEAN or CANOE o Relates to Behavior can predict many important realworld behaviors successful job performance 0 Culture and Big Five some aspects don t emerge clearly in all cultures Individualismcollectivism people from largely individualistic cultures us tend to focus on themselves and personal goals from largely collectivist cultures ten d to focus on their relations with others only 60 though are of this from each culture 0 Alternatives language may not adequately reflect the Big Three model Basic Tendencies underlying personality traits Characteristic Adaptations their behavior manifestations Personaity traits can be expressed in dramatically different ways Sensation Seeking the tendency to seek out new and exciting stimuli Can personality Traits Change showed some changes prior to age 30 in studies Scientific Evaluation of Trait Models 0 Assume traits influence behavior across many situations Walter Mischel s concluded that measures of personality aren t helpful in forecasting behavior 0 Big Five doesn t shed light on the origins of these differences Personality Assessment Errors 0 Falsified physiognomy detected personality traits from facial features 0 William Sheldon drawing inferences from body types failed to consider alternative explanation that he wasn t blind to people s body types when he judged their personality traits and may have fallen prey to confirmation bias Structured Personality Test paper and pencil test consisting of questions that respondents answer in one of a few fixed ways 0 Choosing between true or false 0 Easy to administer and score allow researchers to collect data from many participants simultaneously Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory MMPI widely used structured personality test designed to assess symptoms of mental disorders 0 Most extensively researched personality test Charnley McKinley and Starke Hathaway 0 Empirica method of test construction approach to building tests in which researchers begin with two or more criterion groups and examine which items best distinguish them 0 Group w disorder group without disorder 0 Face Validity extent to which respondents can tell what the items are measuring 0 This test faces low face validity 0 Evaluation extensive research supports reliability or scales and validity scales are highly correlated which means also redundant Offspring of MMPI CPI California Psychological Inventory measuring in the normal range 0 Many measures are developed using Rationaltheoretical method of test construction approach to building tests that requires test developers to begin with a clearcut conceptualization of a trait and then write items to assess that conceptualization Proiective test test consisting of ambiguous stimuli that examinees must interpret or make sense of lnkblots drawings of social situations or incomplete sentences 0 Proiective hvpothesis hypothesis that in the process of interpreting ambiguous stimuli examinees project aspects of their personality onto the stimulus o Rorschach Inkblot Test Herman Rorschach projective test consisting of ten symmetrical inkblots o Scientifically controversy 0 Lack of incremental validity o Incremental Validitv extent to which a test contributes information beyond other more easily collected measures Thematic Apperception Test TAT Tell A Tale Henry Murray projective test requiring examinees to tell a story in response to ambiguous pictures a Human Figure Drawings a popular group of projective tests for example draw a person in any way you wish Graphology psychological interpretation of handwriting o Relies on representative heuristic assuming thingsresemblance go together PT Barnum Effect tendency of people to accept descriptions that apply to almost everyone as applying specifically to them a Personal validation use of subjective judgments of accuracy Projective Tests evaluated Prone to illusory correlation Relied on representative heuristic like goes with like 0 Availability heuristic CHAPTER NINE INTELLIGENCE pages 322359 Sir Francis Galton proposed that intelligence is the byproduct of sensory capacity 0 This claim was falsified heightened hearing doesn t bear much of relation to other exceptional senses like heighten vision Relied solely on sensation Intelligence test diagnostic tool designed to measure overall thinking ability 0 First one was invented by Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon Naming objects generate meanings of words draw pics from memory 0 Binet and Simon recognized higher mental processes reasoning understanding and judgment Abstract thinking capacity to understand hypothetical concepts 0 Rather than the here and now 0 This is what most experts agree intelligence has something to do with other common agreements reason abstractly learn to adapt to novel environmental circumstances acquire knowledge benefit from experience Ggeneral intelligence hypothetical factor that accounts for overall differences in intellect among people S specific abilities particular ability level in a narrow domain Fluid Intelligence capacity to learn new ways of solving problems operating an apparatus never used before Crvstalized intelligence accumulated knowledge of the world acquired over time Multiple intelligences idea that people vary in their ability levels across different domains of intellectual skill Believe the concept of g is wrong 0 Howard Gardner believed there were nine intelligence types of multiple intelligences Triarchic model model of intelligence proposed by Robert Stemberg posting three distinct types of intelligence 0 Analytical ability to reason logically book smarts 0 Practical tacit intelligence the ability to solve real world problems especially involving other people 0 Creative come up with novel and effective answers to questions Biological Bases of Intelligence 0 Brain size correlates with intelligence correlation maybe but not causation 0 Albert Einstein s brain was smaller than the average brain 0 Intelligence can t be pinpointed to one specific region of the brain 0 Prefrontal cortex density of neural connections command and control center 0 Parietal lobe spatial ability 0 Intelligence and reaction time not intelligent slow 0 Intelligence and memory assess working memory to intelligence Intelligence Testing Metacognitive Skills knowledge of our knowledge StanfordBeinet IQ Test intelligence test based on the measure developed by Binet and Simon adapted by Lewis Terman and Sanford University 0 Intelligence Quotient IQ William Stern systematic means of quantifying differences among people in their intelligence 0 Formula divide mental age by chronological age and multiply the number by 100 o Are flaws because mental age levels off at age 16so as years increased he IQ decreases 0 Mental Age age corresponding to the average individual s performance on an intelligence test 0 Deviation IQ expression of a person s IQ relative to his or her sameaged peers used more so for adults 0 Eugenics movement in the early twentieth century to improve a populations genetic stock by encouraging those with good genes to reproduce preventing those with bad genes from reproducing or both 0 Passed laws to restrict immigrations from other countries supposedly marked b low intelligence 0 Forced sterilization practices Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale WAIS most widely used intelligence test for adults today consisting of 15 subsets to assess different types of mental abilities 0 Five subsets overall IQ verbal comprehension perceptual reasoning working memory and processing speed 0 Tests for Children WISC WPPSI Rely heavily on language bad for nonnative speakers CultureFair IQ test abstract reasoning measure that doesn t depend on language and is often believed to be less influenced by cultural factors than other IQ tests areas SATACTGRE predicting undergraduate and graduate career success 0 Prepatory courses is there positive correlation or is it a third variable 0 Practice effect those that practice frequently improve on tests Reliability of IQ scores 0 Don t remain fixed Remain reasonably stable in adulthood Validity predicting life outcomes 5 correlation with high school and college grades Bell Curve distribution of scores in which the bulk of the scores fall toward the middle with progressively fewer scores toward the tails or extremes Mental Retardation condition characterized by an onset prior to adulthood an IQ below about 7 and an inability to engage in adequate daily functioning Genetic Influences Family Studies 0 When a trait runs in a family we don t know if it is genetic reasons or environmental reasons or mix Twin Studies 0 Monozygotic identical one egg 0 Dizygotic fraternal two eggs 0 Higher correlation with identical twins than fraternal twins imply IQ is influenced by genetic factors 0 Heritability o The fact that they correlate less than 10 says that environmental influences also plays a role Adoption Studies 0 Similarity between adoptive children and adoptive parents is interpreted as an environmental effect 0 Come from deprive environment to a stable one shows increase in IQ Environmental Influences Social environment school and parents 0 Biological environment availability of nutrients and exposure to toxic substances 0 How we conceptualizethink about intelligence 0 Birth Order declines with increasing number of children in family 0 Education well educated equals higher IQ or higher IQ equals wanting to be more educated can early educational interventions boost IQ teacher expectations were misled studies 0 Social and economic deprivation can affect IQ Flynn Effect finding that average IQ scores have been rising at a rate of approximately three points per decade 0 Increased test sophistication people are more experiences at taking tests 0 Increased complexity of the modern world forced to process more information more quickly than the past 0 Better nutrition rates of severe malnutrition are declining nutrition can affect IO 0 Changes at home and school smaller families equals more time with children Group Differences with IQ Sex Differences men have slightly higher IQs men aremore variable in their overall scores than women are 0 Mental Abilities women do better on verbal tasks spelling writing current levels of hormone are associated with mental abilities men do better with spatial abilities such as mental rotation tasks men are also better at the mathematical tasks 0 Racial Differences African American and hispanic americans score lower than caucasians do 0 Variability within races is considerably larger than between races 0 Differences are entirely environmental o Withingroup heritability extent to which the variability of a trait within a group is genetically influenced o Betweengroup heritabilitv extent to which differences in a trait between groups is genetically influenced Study done of two different races on mothers and children who were soldiers IQ s were the same showing that the same environment and refuted the races idea 0 Test Bias tendency of a test to predict outcomes better in one group than another or maybe society itself is biased o Stereotype Threat fear that we may confirm a negative group stereotype View of one group being less intelligent Divergent thinking capacity to generate many different solutions to a problem thinking outside the box Convergent Thinking capacity to generate the single best solution to a problem Emotional Intelligence ability to understand our own emotions and those of others and to apply this information to our daily lives 0 Capacity to understand and recognize one s emotion Appreciate others emotions Control emotion Adapt emotion to diverse situations Wisdom application of intelligence toward a common good Dedicate balance between concerts of one self selfinterest concerns of others and concerns of broader society Correlated with intelligence Ideological Immune System our psychological defenses against evidence that contradicts our views 0 High le related to the strength of the system kick it in to gear when we are challenged
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