PY 352 Ch. 11 Notes
PY 352 Ch. 11 Notes 11505
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gretchen Pierce on Sunday April 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 11505 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Andre Souza in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 175 views.
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Date Created: 04/12/15
PY 352 Final Exam Chapter 11 Adolescence Biology and Cognition 1 Conceptions of Adolescence a Adolescence is the transition between childhood and adulthood and it is marked by puberty b Puberty is a ood of biological events leading to an adultsized body and sexual maturity c The widespread view of adolescence as a turbulent period goes back to the stormandstressquot perspective of G Stanley Hall and other major theorists of the early 20th century d Anthropologist Margaret Mead promoted the view that the social environment is entirely responsible for the range of teenage experiences both negative and positive e Today we know that biological psychological and social forces combine to in uence adolescent development f The length of adolescence and its demands and pressures differ widely among cultures g In industrialized societies where young people face prolonged dependence on parents and postponement of sexual gratification while they prepare for a productive work life adolescence is greatly extended 2 Puberty a Genetically in uenced hormonal processes regular pubertal growth b Girls reach puberty on average 2 years earlier than boys c The hormonal changes underlying puberty are under way by age 8 or 9 when secretions of growth hormone GH and Thyroxine increase leading to enormous gains in body size and to attainment of skeletal maturity d Sexual maturation is controlled by the sex hormones e Both estrogens and androgens are present in both males in females but in different amounts f Androgens especially testosterone for boys exert GHenhancing effect contributing to gains in body size g Estrogens cause girls breasts uterus and vagina to mature the body to take on feminine proportions and fat to accumulate h Estrogens also contribute to the regulation of the menstrual cycle p u Adrenal androgens in uence girls height spurt and stimulate growth of underarm and pubic hair but have little impact on boys Pubertal changes are of 2 broad types overall body growth and maturation of sexual characteristics 3 Body Growth a b The first outward sign of puberty is the rapid gain in height and weight called the growth spurt Adolescents add 1011 inches in height and 5075 pounds Growth is complete for most girls by age 16 and for boys age 17 Growth of the hands legs and feet accelerates first followed by the torso There are large sex differences in body proportions boys shoulders broaden relative to the hips and girls hips broaden relative to the shoulders and waist Around age 8 girls start to add fat onto their arms legs and trunk a trend that accelerates from age 1116 while boys arm and leg fat decreases Boys develop larger skeletal muscles hearts and lung capacity than girls 4 Motor Development a b Girls gains in grossmotor performance are slow and gradual leveling off at age 14 Boy show a dramatic spurt in strength speed and endurance that continues through the teenage years Among boys athletic competence is strongly related to peer admiration and selfesteem prompting some adolescent boys to use performanceenhancing drugs with potentially serious side effects Regular sustained physical activity is associated with lasting physical and mental health benefits however physical activity among US adolescents declines dramatically with age 5 Sexual Maturation a There are 2 main types of sexuallyrelated changes in adolescents i Primary sexual characteristics involve reproductive organs ii Secondary sexual characteristics are additional signs of sexual maturity that are visible on the outside of the body b Typically pubertal development takes about 4 years Female puberty usually begins with the budding of the breasts and a growth spurt Menarche or first menstruation period occurs around age 12 for N American girls and 13 for W Europeans Nature delays girls sexual maturity until after the peak of the height spurt when their bodies are large enough for childbearing The first sign of puberty for boys is the enlargement of the testes accompanied by changes in the scrotum Public hair emerges soon after about the same time the penis begins to enlarge When the growth spurt reaches its peak at about age 14 enlargement of the testes and penis is nearly complete underarm facial and body hair appear and the voice deepens Spermarche first ejaculation usually happens around age 13
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