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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Lowe on Sunday April 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC2012 at George Washington University taught by Dr. Duval in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 161 views.
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Date Created: 04/12/15
Class Notes Social Psychology Prejudice Social Categorization process of categorization lends itself to stereotyping Can lead to prejudice and discrimination We can categorize people into lots of different kinds of groups how do we decide to place what schema to put someone in Varies by personal experience priming situation chronic activation etc Some categories are more common in certain cultures than others Once you ve placed someone in a certain group it will activate all those stereotypescharacteristics you associate with that group Outgroup group you aren t a member of lngroup group you are a member of Can be ingroup and outgroup with the same person depending on what characteristic you are looking at Example You and your friend are both white but one of you is Christian and the other is Jewish How does such categorization lead to stereotyping prejudice and discrimination Outgroup Homogeneity outgroup is viewed as more homogenous or more similar to one another than the ingroup This is the they all look alike phenomenon Lends itself to relying on a stereotype when meeting an outgroup member Ultimate Attribution Error tendency to give outgroup members little credit for their success and to blame them for their failures in comparison to ingroup members Lends itself to developing stereotypes of outgroups that contain more negative attributes Reverse of selfserving bias Categorization Leading to S P amp D Minimal Groups Paradigm process of categorizing people into groups can lead to prejudice and discrimination Suggests that 2 groups in competition are not necessary for favoritism to occur In MGP people try to maximize the ingroup s advantage over the outgroup Study indicate which artist 2 you never heard of you like better no one knew what there art looked likes and then told they were put in groups based on their liking They actually just were randomly put into groups You could give points to either team and you obviously would choose to give your own team more points they had never met any other person in the other group They were given two outcomes one was that ingroup got 6 points and outgroup got 5 points Outcome two was that ingroup got 5 points and outgroup only got 1 point People actually preferred outcome two because then the ingroup would be doing MUCH better than the other group Also rated ingroup member traits higher than outgroup member traits They didn t even know anyone in their group or in the other group though This also applies to robots This was studied in Germany in that students were told about a robot either that was German made with a German name or that it was Turkish made with a Turkish name They said the German one was better Social Identity Theory Tajfel SlT stems from the fact that out selfesteem is very closely linked to the groups with whom we identify ourselves Three assumptions of SIT 1 People categorize the world into ingroups and outgrows 2 People want to have highesteem 3 Selfesteem depends in part on how your ingroup is evaluated relative to outgroups If your group does much better than the other team your selfesteem will go up more than just being better by a little When selfesteem is lagging in some way you can lower the other group to raise your selfesteem back up Merely the fact that we put people in groups put this process of events in effect Stereotype maintenance SelfFulfilling Prophecy when people s attitudes towards different social groups leads them to behave toward members of those groups in a way that allows them to confirm the expectation Study Participants were shown a picture of a person they were calling and having a conversation with Half of them got shown a picture of an attractive woman and the other half got shown a picture of a less attractive woman The men ranked those who they thought were attractive were more likely to say they would like to meet them and maybe go on a date after the phone call and vice versa for the other group Reasoning For the attractive picture she was a lot more engaging more social For the unattractive picture wasn t very interesting no social skills Word Zanna and Cooper Study classic selffulfilling prophecy 2 part study having to do with how African Americans and whites are treated in interviews Not a true experiment because you can t have random assignment so you can t talk about causal relationships Study 1 Each interviewer was asked to interview three people The first one being interviewed was always a white male and then the interviewer was randomly assigned to interview either another black or white person It was set up that when interviewer came in the interviewee was already seating in a chair and the other chair was in the corner so the interviewer had to move it to interview Those who were given a black applicant sat farther away from the interviewee than those who were white Study 2 Interviewees were now the participants The interviewer was white and was assigned to give less immediacymore immediacy to the interviewee The participants treated with fewer immediacy behaviors were judged to perform worse in the study Basically regardless of race those interviewees who received less immediacy behaviors form the interviewer did worse in the interview Those with fewer immediacy behaviors performed worse in the interview Subtyping making a sub group within the category that does not apply to the whole category Example If you have a negative stereotype about a singular group you may meet someone who goes against this If so you can put them into their own subgroup Perpetuates stereotyping Another impact of stereotypes Stereotype Threat risk of acting in a manner consistent with a negative stereotype about one s group Study Participants were told that this is usually a really hard test and we want to see your ability BUT some groups were asked to fill out their race and some were not Those African Americans who had to fill out race did worse than those who didn t purely because of the stereotype that African Americans are not as smart The threat that a stereotype could be fulfilled made it be fulfilled
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