Chapter 13 Reading Notes
Chapter 13 Reading Notes PSYC2012
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Lowe on Sunday April 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC2012 at George Washington University taught by Dr. Duval in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 166 views.
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Date Created: 04/12/15
Tuesday April 7 2015 Reading Notes Social Psychology Chapter 13 Prejudice Causes Consequences and Cures Prejudice hostile or negative attitude toward people in a distinguishable group based solely on their membership in that group It is an attitude Have a cognitive element stereotype and can influence behavior form of discrimination Flows from minority group to majority group AND the other way around Has been steadily decreasing over time Stereotype generalization about a group of people in which certain traits are assigned to virtually all members of the group regardless of actual variation among the members Within a given culture these are pretty consistent for everyone May be physical mental or occupational Can be positive and negative Where cognitive misers take shortcuts to reduce the use of cognitive resources a come into play Illusory Correlation tendency to see relationships or correlations between events that are actually unrelated Example We tend to believe that a couple unable to conceive will only be able to after they adopt a child because they are less stressed about it When we see this happen because it is so vivid we assume these two things are always correlated causing this illusory correlation These are most likely to occur when events or people are distinctive or conspicuous What is wrong with positive stereotypes Example Asian Americans are often labeled as good as math and science but this is a struggle for those who are not good at these subjects Tuesday April 7 2015 Study Half of the participants were told they were to study the performance of a African American basketball player names Mark Flick and the other half was told Mark Flick was white At the end they had to rate the performance and those who thought he was African American said he played a better game than those who though he was white Stereotypes and Gender Hostile Sexism negative stereotypes of women they are inferior to men because they are inherently less intelligent less competent less brave less capable of mathscience etc Benevolent Sexism positive stereotypes of women kinder than men more empathetic more nurturing etc Both of these are said to be demeaning towards women both encourage sexism towards women Research also found that people think men are aggressive and predatory and overall not as warmkind as women Having an emotional connection to your stereotypes make you less likely to be convinced otherwise than if you are not emotionally connected Presenting logical facts that dispute one s stereotype will be completely ignored if they are emotionally attached to their belief Discrimination unjustified negative or harmful action toward a member of a group solely because of his or her membership in that group Prejudice usually is what leads to this Any and every stigmatized group will experience this official and subtle Microaggressions slights indignities and put downs that many minorities and people experience Example women in a meeting has the men talk over all of her ideas a professor compliments an Asian American on their excellent english even though they have lived in America their whole life Social Distance one s hesitation to get too close to another group Modern Racism outwardly acting unprejudiced while inwardly maintaining prejudiced attitudes Tuesday April 7 2015 Includes more than specifically racial prejudices Study Participants were showed a series of pictures of people either holding a gun or not holding a gun and either white or African American and were told to press a button saying shoot if they had a gun or don t shoot if they didn t have a gun Results showed people were more likely to shoot if the person in the photo was African American regardless of whether they were holding a gun or something else Findings of most studies indicate that prejudice lies beneath the surface and only comes out in careful situations that would make it appropriate for them to react A stereotype is automatically activated when anyone sees a person of a minority group but can either be acted on or not acted on If the person is overwhelmed busy distracted or not paying much attention they have less control on the level of processing they use Prejudice s effects on the victim SelfFulfilling Prophecy case wherein people have an expectation about what another person is like which influences how they act toward that person which causes that person to behave consistently with people s original expectations making the expectations come true Studies have proven this to be true Stereotype Threat apprehension experienced by members of a group that their behavior might confirm a cultural stereotype Institutional Discrimination practices that discriminate legally or illegally against a minority group by a virtue of its ethnicity gender culture age sexual orientation or other target of societal or company prejudice By living in a society where stereotypical info abounds and where discrimination is the norm people will develop prejudiced attitudes and behave discriminatory to some extent without needing to be taught Institutionalized Racism racist attitudes that are held by the vast majority of people living in a society where stereotypes and discrimination are the norm Institutionalized Sexism sexist attitudes that are held by the vast majority of people living in a society where stereotypes and discrimination are the norm Normative Conformity tendency to go along with the group in order to fulfill the group s expectations and gain acceptance Tuesday April 7 2015 lnGroup Bias everyone categorizes others into groups based on various characteristics and then tend to favor their own group OutGroup Homogeneity perception that individuals in the outgroup are more similar to each other homogenous than they really are as well as more similar than members of the ingroup are Belief that they are all alike Ultimate Attribution Error tendency to make dispositional attributions about an entire group pf people Fundamental Attribution Error we tend to lead to the conclusion that someone s behavior is due to an aspect of that person s personality versus situational reasons Dispositional meaning personalityinternal Blaming the Victim tendency to blame individuals make dispositional attributions for their victimization typically motivated by a desire to see the world as a fair place This applies to prejudice because those who have not been discriminated against lack empathy which means they have a harder time avoiding doing this Studies have shown that we as humans have become very good at bending situations so that one can see them as the victim s faultgot what they deserved etc JustificationSuppression Model of Prejudice says that we will not openly be discriminatory if it is not already a common thing in one s society until given an opportunity that allows it Because pushing down true feelings takes too much energy Competition is one of the main sources of conflict and prejudice Realistic Conflict Theory idea that limited resources lead to conflict between groups and result in increased prejudice and discrimination Example violence against Hispanics has risen 40 sense the feeling that they are stealing American jobs began Scapegoating tendency for individuals when frustrated or unhappy to displace aggression onto groups that are disliked visible and relatively powerless Example Hitler s regime convinced the public that the reason the economy was so bad because of the Jews visible and relatively powerless and convinced Tuesday April 7 2015 everyone to be okay with the murders when the real cause of the bad economy was just World War I Reducing Prejudice The Contact Hypothesis said that integration of people with prejudice and those they have prejudices against can help reduce their prejudice BUT that was not the case for desegregation of schools in the mid1900s WHY Further research showed that six things need to be met in order for contact to do this Mutual Interdependence situation that exists when two or more groups need to depend on one another to accomplish a goal that is important to each of them 1 00 Mutual Interdependence Having a common goal Equal status Friendly informal setting Contact must be in this ingroup members can interact with outgroup members on a onetoone basis Typical of their group multiple members Person of ingroup must learn that these outgroup members are common of that group There must be several outgroup members present with the ingroup member 6 Social norms that promote and support equality among groups These must be occurring Jigsaw Classroom classroom setting designed to reduce prejudice and raise the selfesteem of children by placing them in small desegregated groups and making each child dependent on the other children in the group to learn the course material and do well in the class Tuesday April 7 2015 Research shows that students learning like less have decreased stereotypes and prejudice and increase in their liking for their group mates across and within ethnic borders
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