Week 2_Music 162 (American Popular Music)
Week 2_Music 162 (American Popular Music) 162
Popular in Music 162
Seong Yong Park
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Popular in Music
This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Seong Yong Park on Monday April 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 162 at University of Washington taught by Dudley in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 107 views. For similar materials see Music 162 in Music at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 04/13/15
The Minstrel Show History Ethiopian delineators eg TD Rice s quotJim rowquot 1829 Virginia Minstrels Dan Emmet 1843 1st full blackface show Their show became very popular that other people started copying them Peak of popularity from 1840518705 Black entertainers also participate started as white people putting make ups on to look black After emancipation black people also began to participate and they had to put extra make up on to look more black Q What were some of the things that propelled the distinction between high culture and low culture Still postcolonial society Obsession to become like European countries Rich people wanted to catch up the international trends Performance conventions w l Semicircle bounded by comic endmen interlocutor directing Very high energy and silly of the shows m 2 quotOlioquot variety format comical stump speech Inappropriate English PART 3 nal skit plantation number or spoof of popular plays etc Music LISTEN quotThe Boatman s Dancequot Dan Emmett 1843 What is so African about this song I instruments Banjo bones spoons tambourine l melody Sounded like European fold music Dancing was expected in minstrel show Most performers were Irish Melody did not show much of African features Minstrel Show Characters Sambo jim Crow Old Darky Zip Coon Mammy Muatress Zip coon speak eloquently Audience enjoyed it James Bland s music cover typical images of black people dancing and aggressiveness Horrible distorted faces of Black people What nonracial meaninds did peoole make from blackface License of mask Socialpolitical commentary Fun and sentimentality LISTEN quotOld Folks at Homequot Stephen Foster 1854 What references to minstrel show Banjo Plantation darkies nostalgic Dialect What other meanings One of the justi cations for continuation of slavery Who is at these shows people from other places missing their homes Not just blacks but any workers nostalgia far from home African American Professional entertainers Taking false stereotypes and gradually dignifying them They did not have many opportunities to become a professional and it was a good opportunity to make living james Bland 18541911 WC Handy 18731958 Bert Williams 18741922 LISTEN Nobody Bert Williams 190 Appealing to underdog Defiant lyrics dignifying in a mild way MINSTREL SHOW cont39d Stereotypes of African Americans have been most pervasive Psychological legacy of slavery Dynamic musical culture Other stereotypes though also created in pop culture IMAGES Chinese caricatures on sheet music covers PARLOR MU IC Music for entertaining at home Foundations Piano in latter 19th century Musical literacy Public music education Mass entertainment If you wanted music you had to make it yourself because there were no recorded music back then Stephen Foster 18261864 Born in Pittsburgh formal music training Classical training middle class lrish family Minstrel show songs and more 39refined songs Ambivalent feelings about his role in pop culture Ethiopian became a word that symbolized African American LISTEN quotJeanie with the Light Brown Hairquot 1854 162CD11 Form AABA professionals used this song lnstrumentation ute guitar violin cello middle class Musical hook Nice melody nice chords works for home entertainment VAUDEVILLE Tony Pastor39s Opera House 1865 in NYC Site was previously quotVolk s Gardenquot pleasure gardens Organized travelling minstrel shows 1881 moves and establishes a new format operettas alternate with family oriented variety show gtEvoved into regional and national circuits of theaters controlled by centralized management Vaudeville Music coon songs rags ballads etc great variety of music in Vaudeville Also juggling acrobats comedy skits etc VIDEO Silent lm of Vaudeville variety httpwwwyoutubecomwatchvRm4uiALzTes VIDEO Toni Basil39s Vaudeville family on Ed Sullivan httpwwwyoutubecomwatchvXOPJhDrWDrk TIN PAN ALLEY 18805 Broadway and 28th St in NYC Publishers focusing exclusively on popular songs All the steps inhouse composing printing marketing Started as a place but then became a business model formulaic songwriting Charles Harris 18671930 jew fr Milwaukee First to sell sheet music in millions of copies LISTEN quotAfter the Ballquot CD12 meter form What was it about this recording that made quotAfter the Ballquot sell so well Unprecedented It was not a recording it was a sheet music TPA songs work their way into oral traditionquot Charles Harris 18671930 jew fr Milwaukee First to sell sheet music in millions of copies LISTEN quotAfter the Ballquot CD12 meter Triple meter waltz form Overall it is quotVerse and Chorusquot but in detail it is a cycle of AABAVerse hookChorus AABAVerse hookChorus What was it about this recording that made quotAfter the Ballquot sell so well Unprecedented It was not a recording it was a sheet music TPA songs work their way into oral traditionquot Irving Berlin 18881989 Jewish contributions to popular music 18805 Immigration wave from Russia Immigrants nd opportunity in entertainment industry Particularities ofJewish immigrants Culture of diaspora and adaptability Jewish performed entertainment services for nonJews in Europe RAGTIME quotragging the tunequot rhythmic and textural concept Popular dance derived from cakewalk started from plantation mockery of white plantation dancers Ragtime songs Ragtime marches Piano rags 1893 Chicago Worlds Fair exposure for ragtime Scott Joplin 19681917 Born in Texas later moved to Sedalia Missouri Experience as entertainer also formal classical instruction Published rst piano rags in w Mape LeafRag a huge hit Aspired to be an art music composer LISTEN Mape LeafRag 1898 piano roll made in 1916 Form Sectional AABBACCDDEE Broad category and not so repetitivedifferent sections What elements of African American style Rhythmic contrast syncopation James Reese Europe 18801919 Founded Clef Club dance orchestra in 1910 Carnegie Hall concerts Dance band for Irene and Vernon Castle Directed band of African American 359th Infantry quotHellfightersquot regiment in WWI Castle39s dance routines described in quot guresquot note relation to set dances contra dance sectional form related to this concept of choreography LISTEN quotCastle House Ragquot Cef Club Instrumentation Brass percussion clarinet winds chimes violins banjos Form AABBACCDEEF Tried to make new style Ragtime was the most popular style at turn of century and ragtime piano techniques became basis for Broadway musical theater style Debates about moral implications of quotsyncopated musicquot Raqtime cont d New level of in uence of African American style eg compare the melodies LISTEN Maple Leaf Ragquot vs Boatman39s Dancequot Moral evaluations of ragtime SOUND RECORDING Landmarks in the invention of sound recording technology 1877 Edison s cylinder phonograph 1887 Emile Berliner s gramophone 1901 Victor Talking Machine Co home gramophones 19205 Electronic recording with microphones Marketinq recorded music 1 Early strategies Selling jukeboxes beginning ca 1890 Selling gramophones Records not seen as a pro table commodity by themselves Recorded Repertoire Opera Marching bands Tin Pan Alley songs Ragtime Novelty world music 19205 recordings become a more important commodity Development of electronic microphone improves sound Emergence of new popular music categories blues jazz hillbilly Marketing of quotrace recordsquot and hillbilly does industry re ect cultural differences or create them EARLY jAZZ New Orleans as a culture unto itself French territory 1763 ceded to Spain 1803 acquired by US in Louisiana Purchase French culture mulatto mix of black and white middle class more racial mixture and musical exchange African in uences Congo Square Ca bbeanin uences Mexican musicians Brass band tradition lst commercial recording of quotjazzquot LISTEN quotTiger Ragquot Original Dixieland Jazz band 1918 Instrumentation Trumpet trombone clarinet signature of new Orleans marching band drums drum set is taking pacepercussion banjo standard mostly replaced piano basstuba Form texture polyphony Very varied Cannot particularly say it is one form LISTEN quotDippermouth Bluesquot King Oliver s Creole Jazz Band 1923 featuring Louis Armstrong How is this different fr Tiger Rag Texture was still dynamic but this was more consistent texture Open up as polyphony and then gave it over to clarinet and then trumpet and back to polyphony again Makes you want to move and sway to it Tiger Rag was more spectacle Structure is different this song has improvisation Unlike sheet music recordings can convey Improvisation Subtleties of 39feel Record music did not overwhelm sheet music until 19505 Recording required the performance Movie First movie that was made with sound in 1927 There were only background music There were not much dialogue I could only see actorsactresses mouths move Some dialogues were written on the scenes Some dialogues were dubbed Story a boy wants to sing but his father did not like it His father gave him a whip The boy ran away He grew up He met a beautiful woman The woman got a job in New York and she managed to get her boyfriend a job there as well He moved there Later he wanted to nd her mother He found his mother and sang to her His father came in while he was singing Father still not so happy with his son singing However it turned out that it was the father s birthday The boy remembered it and gave him a little gift But his father was still so angry because the boy is going to Broadway to perform his jazz music Poor mother so sad cry cry Later the rehearsal was weak and it was up to the boy the jazz singer to make the show great He started putting this black make up on all over his face to look like an African American Suddenly he thinks about his mother and father because his parents would not be so happy to see him dressed as an African American It was also the day for Atonement Mother came to see his boy and told him that his father was dying The boy is persistent His priority is his career As the boy started singing everyone burst into tears because his song was so touching and his voice was like God s given After the performance the boy comes home to see his dying father His father nally told his son that he loves his son But it was the night when he had to sing He had to choose between taking his biggest chance or breaking his mom s heart by leaving his dying father The boy chose to sing and his father died while the boy was singing to God
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