April 6th-10th GEO 101
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cassidy Reid on Monday April 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEO 101 at Washington State University taught by Wilkie in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Geology in Geology at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 04/13/15
Geo notes April 6 2015 Erosion by Groundwater Dissolution 0 Chemical weathering process by which slightly acidic water dissolves rock 0 Most common limestone 0 Water picks up C02 from the atmosphere and from the soil and becomes slightly acidic carbonic acid Cave Formation 1 Dissolution occurs near the water table enlarging previous fractures 2 Water Table drops eaves a cavity full of air 3 Water in ltrates from above dissolving limestone and minerals precipitate as formations known as speleothems 4 Minerals calicite precipitate as formations known as speleothems Stalacite cave formation attached to roof Stalagmite cave formation attached to oor Sinkhoe location where the roof of a cave has collapsed Example Winter Park Florida Disappearing Stream streams ows into surface entrance to cave and ow underground Groundwater is recharged by in ltration and the same process is responsible for introducing many contaminates into our water supply Just like groundwater and surface water agents of contamination ows down hill or down gradient Contamination of Water Supply 0 Gas stations and other storage tanks LUST program Leaky Underground Storage Tanks Old land lls old dumps Evaporation ponds and beds associatied with industry an EPA survey found 18000 such ponds and beds in US which 77 were unlined Chemical spills Sewage and feedlots Radioactive wastes Hanford WA Pesticidesherbicidesfertilizers Many more Groundwater ow direction can change due to heavy pumping of a well Consider the following questions You bought a piece of land in a rural area to build your house you need both a water well and a septic system Where are you going to put them Geo Notes April 8 2015 Why should we study the oceans o 70 of Earths surface 0 Source for food energy 0 Used for transportation Drives Hydrologic Cycle 0 In 1990 50 of the US Population lived within 75 km of a coast and by 2025 75 will Ocean Water Composition Salinity is the concentration of salt in seawater appox 35 o The dissolved salt content is not constant and changes with location and depth the more evaporation the higher the concentration Temperature is strati ed varies with depth Ocean Currents Ocean currents move large amounts of water and heat by Winddriven surface ocean circulation Densitydriven deepocean circulation Cold salty water tends to sink Warm less salty water rises Both redistribute heat from warmer regions to cooler regions Landscape Beneath the Sea Mapping the sea oor by Satellite measurements Echo sounding pro les Sidescan sonar Manned and unmanned submersibles Landscapes beneath the sea 0 Continental margin o Abyssal plain This plain extends beyond the continental rise typically 46 km below sea level It is the attest surface on the earth Why map the ocean oors Mapping is used to locate hazards that may affect communication lines oil and gas pipelines commercial and military transportation routes Hazards seamounts guyot areas modi ed by mass wasting underwater mud ows areas cut by faults Coasts the uneasy landsea interface Waves are due to wind Higher waves can be caused by 1 Higher wind speed 2 Increased storm duration 3 Longer fetch distance over which wind blows Wave characteristics 0 Wave length distance between crests Wave height vertical distance between crest and trough Period time between successive waves to pass Wave base is 12 wave length there is negligible water movement die to waves below this depth How do breakers form 0 As the swell approaches the shower
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