Management 300 Week 12 Notes
Management 300 Week 12 Notes Management 300
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Danielle Grek on Monday April 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Management 300 at Arizona State University taught by in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 70 views.
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Date Created: 04/13/15
Management 300 Week 12 Notes Motivation the psychological processes that arouse and direct goaldirected behavior Rewards managers can use both to encourage better work performance Extrinsic rewards satisfaction in the payoff from others An extrinsic reward is the payoff such as money that a person receives from others for performing a particular task lntrinsic rewards satisfaction in performing the task itself An intrinsic reward is the satisfaction such as a feeling of accomplishment that a person receives from performing the particular task itself Motivate people to 1 Join your organization 2 Stay with your organization 3 Show up for work at your organization 4 Be engaged while at your organization 5 Do extra for your organization 4 major perspectives on motivation Content Process Job design and Reinforcement 1 Content perspectives needbased theories that emphasize the needs that motivate people Needs the physiological or psychological de ciencies that arouse behavior Hierarchy of needs theory Maslow proposes that people are motivated by ve levels of needs physiological clothing shelter and food safety love affection and friendship esteem status reputation and selfrespect and selfactualization selfful llment ERG theory Alderfer assumes that three basic needs in uence behavior existence relatedness and growth Acquired needs theory McCelland states that achievement affiliation and power are the major motives determining people s behavior in the workplace Twofactor theory Herzberg work satisfaction and dissatisfaction arise from two different factors work satisfaction from motivating factors and work dissatisfaction from hygiene factors Hygiene factors factors associated with job dissatisfaction such as salary working conditions interpersonal relationships and company policy All of which affect the job context Motivating factors motivators factors associated with job satisfaction such as achievement recognition responsibility and advancement All of which affect job content or rewards 2 Process perspectives concerned with the thought process by which people decide how to act Equity theory focuses on employee perceptions as to how fairly they think they are being treated compared with others Elements of this lnputs What do you think you39re putting into the job Outputs or rewards What do you think you39re getting out of the job and Comparison How do you think your ratio of inputs and rewards compare with those of others Expectancy theory suggests that people are motivated by two things how much they want something and how likely they think they are to get it Expectancy the belief that a particular level of effort will lead to a particular level of performance lnstrumentality the expectation that successful performance of the task will lead to the outcome desired Valence the value the importance a worker assigns to the possible outcome or reward Goalsetting theory Latham suggests that employees can be motivated by goals that are speci c and challenging but achievable 3 Job design the division of an organization39s work among its employees and the application of motivational theories to jobs to increase satisfaction and performance Job simpli cation the process of reducing the number of tasks a worker performs Job enlargement consists of increasing the number of tasks in a job to increase variety and motivation Job enrichment consists of building into a job such motivating factors as responsibility achievement recognition stimulating work and advancement Job characteristics model Hackman Oldham consists of ve core job characteristics skill variety task identity task signi cance autonomy and feedback that affect three critical psychological states of an employee that in turn affect work outcomes the employee39s motivation performance and satisfaction 4 Reinforcement theory attempts to explain behavior change by suggesting that behavior with positive consequences tends to be repeated whereas behavior with negative consequences tends to not to be repeated Reinforcement anything that causes a given behavior to be repeated or inhibited Positive reinforcement the use of positive consequences to strengthen a particular behavior Negative reinforcement the process of strengthening a behavior by withdrawing something negative Extinction the weakening of behavior by ignoring it or making sure it is not reinforced When a supervisor no longer gives bonuses for selling a certain product and employees are less likely to sell that product Punishment the process of weakening behavior by presenting something negative or withdrawing something positive 4ncenUves Pay for performance bases pay on one s results Piece rate employees are paid according to how much output they produce Saes commission sales representatives are paid a percentage of the earnings the company made from their sales Bonuses cash awards given to employees who achieve speci c performance objectives Profit sharing distribution to employees of a percentage of the company39s pro ts Gainsharing the distribution of savings or quotgainsquot to groups of employees who reduced costs and increased measurable productivity Stock options certain employees are given the right to buy stock at a future date for a discounted price Pay for knowledge ties employee pay to the number of jobrelevant skills or academic degrees they earn Appying the job characteristics model requires considering how to redesign the job determining whetherjob redesign is appropriate diagnose the work environment to see whether a problem exists Job design works when employees are motivated To be motivated they must have three psychological states experienced meaningfulness of work has knowledge of the of the actual results of the work and experienced responsibility for the work outcomes In the hierarchy of needs theory phsiological needs deal with the most basic human survival needs of food clothing shelter and comfort Job design works when employees are motivated To be motivated they must have three psychological states has knowledge of the actual results of the work experienced meaningfulness of work and experienced responsibility for the work outcomes In equity theory the education experience and skills that individuals contribute to their organizations are examples of inputs Theories that are classi ed as process perspectives expectancy theory goal setting theory and equity theory Simpe model of motivation steps unful lled need motivation behaviors rewards and feedback Hackman and Oldham39s job characteristics model is composed of three major elements three psychological states work outcomes and ve core job characteristics In a quotwell balancedquot indidual the three acquired needs of achievement af liation and power are equal size