Physical Development (By Elizabeth)
Physical Development (By Elizabeth) EDP 301
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Texana Sonnefeld on Monday April 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EDP 301 at University of Arizona taught by Heidi Burross in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 156 views. For similar materials see Child development in Educational Psychology at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 04/13/15
Disclaimer This outline in black is provided from Elizabeth Bukoski from D2L see citation in footer 410 Physical Development 1 Discuss the naturenurture debate in physical development Identify and de ne the parts of a neuron Understand how experience drives brain development through plasticity Identify and de ne the four lobes of the brain Discuss the brain changes associated with childhood Discuss the brain changes associated with adolescence De ne the physical and social implications associated with changes in puberty NP MerJN Nature vs nurture revisited Much of physical development can be traced to naturebiological heredity The heritability estimate determines the in uence biology has on variations of that aspect of development e g height is 8095 affect physical traits phonotypical traits Shared environments make it tough to determine the individual effects of nature and nurture in many cases Shared environments making siblings more similar to each other Have a proportion of shared genetics AND environments with family This is why identical twins separated at birth are so popular in this research same genetics different environments have exact DNA but raised in different environments Most likely explanation in most cases is the interaction of the two forces Genetic factors lead us to seek out speci c environments nichepicking we gain more from certain environments ex nichepicking if you are good at readying you seek out to read books which in turn makes you even better at reading books Brain development Infants born with all of the neurons that they will have throughout the lifespan Generally born will all neurons Genetics determine the number of neurons Axon long tube structure signal producer for signals that leave the cell body Dendrites branches of the neuron responsible for information coming into the cell body Cell body principle part of the neuron powering neuron by producing proteins needed to function and processes information going in and out Bukoski E 2015 April 10 Physical Development University of Arizona Tucson AZ Disclaimer This outline in black is provided from Elizabeth Bukoski from D2L see citation in footer Synapse the gap between neurons that the signals jump across Myelin fatty covering that covers the axon it speeds up the signals down the axon Plasticity Synaptic pruning of connections between brain systems Born with too many shapes cell death Plasticity experience selects the preservation of connections Strengthening use it or lose it connections used more become stronger Pruning under used cells Driven by external world experiences Synapses organized by experience throughout development Complexenriched environment research Increased synapses Basic brain structure Rogmnsof mxHunnn1ann F t Back m httpwwwknutsfordscibarcoukpreviousscibardiscussionshtm Four lobes Occipital back at the brain primary function is visual processing center Parietal middle top portion of the brain main sensory processing unit of the brain Frontal in the front decisionmaking and executive control behavior Temporal by your ears associated with auditory processing Bukoski E 2015 April 10 Physical Development University of Arizona Tucson AZ Disclaimer This outline in black is provided from Elizabeth Bukoski from D2L see citation in footer Experience and hormones change the brain structure plasticity which then results in behavior changes Brain in childhood Brain matures at different rates does not all occur at the same age By age 4 sensory and motor systems developed Last to develop in adolescents are centers for judgment and decisionmaking Brain is more complex and specialized the more experiences the better Language center shifts to the left hemisphere coinciding with experience of native language at 20 months Sensitive period in external in uence Around 78 years old learning a second language more grammatically difficult O Specialized areas of the brain develop and are used to support language as learning becomes more complex Not all parts of language develop at the same rate syntax vocab prosody etc Importance of language development experience reasonable experience around language in a lovingcaring environment Allow children experience to practice new language skills Opportunity to learn multiple language strongest at ages 35 Face to face interaction is the best listen to language stories aloud match objects with words Brain in adolescence In adolescence the following show growth Corpus callosum bundle of nerve fibers that connects the two hemispheres of the brain Motor and speech function areas getting fine tuned during this time Q Prefrontal cortex 1220 years old grey matter and myelin of the axons is still developing Frontal lobe development in the early 20s Gray matter increase grey matter and cells Prefrontal cortex undergoing myelination of axons Bukoski E 2015 April 10 Physical Development University of Arizona Tucson AZ Disclaimer This outline in black is provided from Elizabeth Bukoski from D2L see citation in footer Speed of signal conduction make decisions quickly help with impulse control and distractibility Decision making greater activity of amygdala than frontal lobes O Impulse control distractibility More prone to addiction than adults More sensitive to substances Teens need more guidance to realize negative consequences 413 Skeletal Changes Bones ossify through adolescence Low calcium leads to demineralization Low calcium diet most important mineral during this process Phosphorus in soda when drinking large amounts everyday Steroid use may stunt bone development interfere with genes that signal ossi cation Inactivity is the MOST problematic Bone density increases most in adolescence Delayed puberty or amenorrheic adolescents tend to have lifelong bone problems Puberty happens in multiple processes not just all at once Experience differs by seX females 811 males about 1012 Defined as chemical and physical changes in the body that prepare us for reproduction Adrenarche rise in androgens 6 years in girls 9 years in boys rise in testosterone primarily Gonadarche increased hormonal production leads to reproductive viabilitymaturity 2 years later outward changes in your body hair etc Secondary sexual characteristics appear 2 years later after gonadarce Boys increased muscle mass deeper voices body amp facial hair increased sweat and oil output Girls redepositingincrease of fat breasts hips body hair increased sweat and oil output Spermarche first ejaculation 12l4 years for boys Bukoski E 2015 April 10 Physical Development University of Arizona Tucson AZ Menarche first menstrual cycle 10l4 years for girls Disclaimer This outline in black is provided from Elizabeth Bukoski from D2L see citation in footer Puberty timing What are some of the factors that affect puberty onset and offset Genetics nutrition environmental amount of fat on your body primarily for girls physical activity What are the effects of early or late onset Going through puberty early can have negative effects but positive for males amp negative for females if late and negative for males who develop late social factors seek older friends Bullying acne can appear earlier or later both negative Harmful to Physical Development Inactivity not exercising enough Injury leading cause of death in adolescence automobile accidentsserious injuries damage to nerves that can lead to later problems in life 0 Poor eating habits Can create eating disorders although not always about food Lack of needed nutrients can lead to physical and cognitive deficiencies Substance useabuse addiction can linger in the brain causing harm Early sexual behaviors possible to become pregnancy which the body may not be ready for at an early age extra hormones stress on organs also getting STDs at an earlier age is detrimental they are more lingering to the body and are harmful to development relation to getting cervical cancer later on Helpful to Physical Development Language early exposure to spoken language having good nutrition lots of sleep physical activity ages 35 is critical Guidance for adolescents in decision making having axons myelinated helps in decision making Appropriate amounts and types of foods 0 Calcium protein fruits and veggies o Minimize soda sugars too much of most foods Plenty of sleep Maybe even more in puberty at least 8 hours sleep involved in social cognitive emotional factors that you are really involved with during this age Circadian rhythms change in adolescence to later sleep shifts to being awake until later at night and sleeping through later in the morning Bukoski E 2015 April 10 Physical Development University of Arizona Tucson AZ Disclaimer This outline in black is provided from Elizabeth Bukoski from D2L see citation in footer Physical activity Bukoski E 2015 April 10 Physical Development University of Arizona Tucson AZ
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