Nixon and Kissinger
Nixon and Kissinger HIST 2340W
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amaris Mae on Tuesday April 14, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2340W at George Washington University taught by Brazinsky in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 132 views. For similar materials see History of US Diplomacy in History at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 04/14/15
Nixon and Kissinger Failure in Vietnam had America questioning whether or not we had the right to transform other countries and change their destinies China was emerging from the Cultural Revolution in 1968 China was less dependent on the west Nixon had a strong vision of how he wanted to change the policy and the world Nixon believed that the US had lost prestige As a result of the Vietnam war Wanted to reverse this decline D tente nada the USSR Wanted foreign policy to be protected fro the whims of public opinion Kissinger distinctive view that was antiWilsonian Believed that US was intimidating and frightening other areas Center of Powers according to Nixon We have 3 powers US Western Europe and Japan All friends and allies but all competing For economic leadership Two other superpowers Soviet Union China Would like to negotiate Linkage classic carrot and the stick diplomacy If the Soviets wanted progress on one issue that was important to them then they had to make progress on issue important to the US Ex USSR wanted the US to recognize the boundaries of Eastern Europe Nixon and Kissinger said they would do so but only if a permanent solution to Berlin no guarantee of western access to Berlin SALT Not dot develop antiballistic missiles Limited the number of warheads each could have Also established new communication links between the two countries Great trump for Nixon and Kissinger Made withdrawal from Vietnam is sear Nixon and Mao Wanted to change perceptions of China The other center of global power Until the late 19605 the in uence of the proTaiwan proKai Sheik lobby in the US created a legacy of hostility between the US and China At the beginning of his administration he lifted some trade restrictions Kissinger went to a private meeting with China Chinese Motives Recognition of the PRC derecognition of Taiwan Counterbalance the Soviets lmprove relations with other quotFree worldquot nations China had been opposed to the idea of quottwo Chinasquot for a long time American Motives Honorable withdrawal form Vietnam Get china to pressure Vietnamese for settlements Cooperation against the USSR on some issues quotThe enemy of my enemy is my friend Make it easier forte US to reduce its presence in Asia Shanghai Communique China won t exacerbate tensions in Korea and Vietnam China and US wont cooperate it soviet bloc Both countries oppose efforts of any one power to dominate Asia Taiwan is part of china Although Nixon won t leave Taiwan immediately Nixon Doctrine 1 US honors its treaty commitments 2 US would pride nuclear shelf for allies 3 Ion there kinds of threats US would provide military and economic id but allies must defend themselves Angolan Civil War MPA Socialist Supported by Soviets and Cuba Led by Agostino Nieto FNLA Supported by the US 1975 Kissinger decides to aid FNLA by using the CIA and encouraging South Africa to send forces 1976 Cuba sends 30000 troops to support the MPLA Cuba and MPLA win but UNlTA continues to ght Two sides fought on and of civil war until 2002 Example of how NixonfordKissinger polices sometimes chose to ignore international policy Norodom Sihanouk Nixon argued that there were too many Viet Cong forces in Cambodia and Laos To help Southern Vietnams Secret bombings in Laos and Cambodia 0 Use the most powerful explosives o 100000150000 casualties 0 Use of chemicals led to a health crisis that took decades to start to mitigate Norodom Neutralist in Cambodia ln power since the 19505 Replaced with Lon Nol Because Nixon wanted a leader who would pick a side Chile Salvador Allende Leftist government in Chile Nixon feels he is a Marxist NSCS says that he could be worked with Nixon wants to isolate Chile and Allende economically and politically And within Chile to support the military to coup Pinochet 0 Liberal economic develop mentalism 0 But brutality o Dictatorship 0 But an ally of the US Congress becomes more assertive in the 19705 Due to Watergate And started to become more involved with foreing policy And did more to obstruct detante Kissinger on National Interest quotit is a myth while other nations have interests we have obligationsquot Kissinger is rejected the Wilsonian proposition that the US has a responsibility to behave altruistically lt leave the US policy to vacillate between righteous crusades and isolationism But principle however lofty must be related to practice interest is not necessarily amoral Inspired by Metternich Believes policy needed to be guided by 1 an objective assessment and pursuit of national interests 2 a balance of power By pursuing national interests you ensure global stability and reduce the likelihood of war It39s the wilsonian effort to change the world that causes other nations to feel insecure Remarks to News Media Executives quotWe have been negotiating we will be negotiating and the important thing is negotiations are happeningquot Nixon is not harping on the evils of communism Only sees Russia as an economic competition Therefore he wants to negotiate with them To create peace by encouraging negotiation on both sides quotThe US policy must be in the long term ending the isolation of mainland Chinaquot quotBecause looking down the road the US mainland China completely isolated would be a danger to the whole world Unacceptable to us and unacceptable to the worldquot The greatest threat is an isolated China