African Organizations IAFF 2093
Popular in Africa: Problems and Promise
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Popular in International Affairs
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amaris Mae on Tuesday April 14, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to IAFF 2093 at George Washington University taught by Shinn in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 84 views. For similar materials see Africa: Problems and Promise in International Affairs at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 04/14/15
News 422015 Kenyan University attack Suicide shooter by AlShabab 147 dead as of 348 pm 422015 AlShabab has still been active in Somali Attacking a hotel with a parliament member inside Attacks in Mogadishu Nigerian Elections Good luckJonathan is voted out Muhammadu Buhari is now the presidentelect Buhari pledges to remove Boko Haram Also pledged to wage a war against corruption Egyptian Soldiers killed in Sinai Gunmen attacked military checkpoints 17 killed Islamic State group known as Sinai Province The army has killed 70 people thus far Egypt Sudan and Ethiopia signed a preliminary deal for a dam Reconciliation On the future of the dam US removed an armed freeze to Egypt President Obama announced he would visit Kenya International Affairs African Union Came into 2002 Replaced Organization of African Unity 1963 New charter Looked of the EU However the parliamentary organ is not strong Many were critical of the former organization Could not meet the demand of a changing world Wanted a strong regional organization for peace on the continent Secretary General had too little authority And increase funding The new charter re ects a compromise between those how wanted a super national entity and those who wanted to maintain key components of national severity 54 states involved Leading to the new Charter Reaction of the rise of a neoliberal encomia ideology Growing need to reset Human nights Some personal rivalries among leaders quotGood governancequot in the new charter Old OAU principles human rights rule of law sanctity of human life good governance peaceful resolution of con icts prohibition of the use of force against member states balanced economic development through the promotion of social justice Essentially good governance law and economy Structure of AU The Assembly the supreme organ of the AU PresidentPrime Ministers Holds enormous power Determines policies Admits new members Adopts the budget Decides on intervention in other states if any Executive Council Consists of foreign minister Can make decisions on a wide range of issues such as foreign trade and education Prepares the agenda for the Heads of State summit Assembly Pan African Parliament Based in South Africa Platform To represent the views of the African people Has an advisory role But is expected eventually to hold full powers 5 legislators from each member state 20 of the members are female Peace and Security Council Responsible for promoting Opeace security and responsibility 15 elected members Very effective Amanas Operation The Somali government would not be in Mogadishu today AlShabab would still be there Long way to go but have done some work Burundi Comoro Islands Bad project Darfur Got overwhelmed Quickly became a hybrid between AU and UN Have accomplished precious little in Darfur Economic Social and cultural council Encourage democracy Has done little beyond providing monitoring Had done little to go beyond corruption Combatting corruption is not something the AU can do AU has denounced military dictatorship Mauritania twice Mali Guinea etc And has removed them from the Au Promote respect Good governance Human rights Commission AU administrative structure Runs between summit meetings Lacks professionalism a collegial nature a panAfricanist vision and good management system Funding 130 million Algeria Egypt Lydia Nigeria and South Africa provide 75 of the funding Many countries are under sanctions And many countries do not pay their dues Many people do not feel connected to the Au Is not people driven But state driven AU has been far more outspoken in condemning military coups Much different form the OAU NEPAD Adopted by the OAU in 2001 And then readopted in 2002 The goal is to eradicate poverty Promote sustainable growth and development And empower women Blueprint for Africa39s development in the 21St century Goals Reducing the risk of doing business in Affric a Creating condition conducive to investment and high economic growth Increasing Africa39s competitiveness Transforming the relationship with donor countries And working with multilateral institutions To increase investment in Africa Africa Union created the NEPAD Coordinating Industry To facilitate and coordinate the implementation of priority programs and projectsj Started out as its own project Now supervised by the AU bureaucracy Beginning Under Mbeki president of South Africa in 1999 Remains to be seen whether it will become an affective organization Not as much support from the donor countries It operates on the assumption that we will monitor our own improvement and make the changes that we think are necessary to encourage economic development but donor want to see the improvements rst African Development Bank Improving service delivery and nancing for countries Since 2001 the focus has been to support regional strategies to prevent con ict and to stabilize postcon ict states Done in an economic way 1 Governance Captivity building Recon structure of Infrastructure 2 Onetime payment for debt arrears of fragile states 3 Improving the capacity of bureaucracy Management technology Criticism 1 Looks at technological solutions only 2 Prioritizes profitneed 3 Can encouragesustain leaders a Regardless of whether they be good leaders 4 Need to coordinate with other resourcesinfrastructures Problems with all Structures Not enough money Meeting the Challenge of Globalization The African Union Au is the product of preOAU dead But also a response to the globalization and democratization democratization 1961 Kwame Nkrumah had called for an organization similar in suction and ambitions to the Au byte majority of other African leaders rejected it OAU was established in 1963 Legacies of the OAU Globalization and the end often Cold War had compelled African states to recognize the structural weakness that had prevented the OAU from responding effectively to fratricidal intrastate con ict 9 OAU submitted the Political and SocioEconomic Situation in Africa and the fundamental Changes Taking Place in the Worldquot 0 1993 establish the OAUquots mechanism for Con ict Prevention Management and Resolution After all the con ict in CAR DRC Ethiopia Liberia GuineaBissau Rwanda and Somalia they created the Au at the Sirte Libya summit in 1999 During the life of the Oahu African states not only groomed dictates whose obsession with power resulted looting of the coffers But also destructive and bad habits and practices such as corruption Nan nepotism go unchecked Issue of disputed state boundaries is no longer a major problem But Morocco s position on Western Sarahi39s a subset of it OAU used the principle of noninterference and onintervention in the internal affairs of member state stop turn a blind eye to horrendous and egregious actors of brutality y 9 But the AU can interfere in quotrespect of grave circumstancesquot OAU coddles dome dictations such as Uganda39s ldi Amin ldi Amman served as the OAU s chairman for m19751976 While butchering thousands of Uganda s Other OAU chairman dictates Ethiopia39s Mengistu Haile Mariam and Germans Mobutu Sese Seko of the DRC and lbrahim Babangida of Nigeria 9 AU has additional structures that require its members to govern well 9 Au has to observe sound economic policies 9 And AU members have to respect human rights Robert Mugabe of Zimbabwe has committed to these goals but he is a dictator and is not observing the good governance principle Political Climate of the African Union Rivalry among leaders appear to revolve around three political gures 1 Libias Muammar Gaddafi pan Africanista ideal a Single handedly put in more money than anyone else 2 Nigeria39s Olusegun Obasanjo country s political and encomia cloutO 3 South Africa39s Thabo Mbeki country s economic and political clout Gadha Took power in 1969 Overthrew King ldris Who had also called for an African political union 30 year rule Wanted to build nuclear weapons Then pursued the panAfrican project instead South Africa Also had sought to obey a nuclear power Deviled a credible nuclear weapons program by the late 1980s However with renewed pressure for liberation the white minority debated nuclear weapons would be passed on to the black regime and then it was dismantled Signed the Non Proliferation Treaty in July 1991 Mbeki became president in 1999 And then it was too late for a nuclear weapons Gaffe and Mbeki By pursing NEPAD Mbeki sought to satisfy the concerns of the 1960s critics of Nkrumah who sought African unit through economic cooperation NEPAD was regarded as an appropriate governance tool for debtridden Africa All of this context panAfricanism globalization end of the cold war and need for economic relief that led to the creation of the Au and the encouragement of it by 43 states that attend the OAU summit in Libby in 1999 AU was formally launched in 2002 Gadha gave a speech that heralded Arica39s freedom ended of enslavement and colonialism and the African ownership of their land but sounded like a militant rant thick and rhetoric Through the AU Gadha south to greater a hegemony in Africa Some people pitted AU against NEPAD Mbeki39s brainchild Gaffe wanted a continental government one African military force uniform trade and foreign policies and one leader representing it all Also Nkrumah39s dram Mbeki wanted to create a continent ruled by likeminded African democrats who shared his goals of competitive markets technological advancement progressing economies and industrious populations Objectives of the African Union Many of the objectives require a skillful exploitation of the complex relationships between globalization security and governance to be pursued successfully AU makes a pledge to build quota United and strong Africaquot Wants to establish partnerships The Economic Social and Cultural Council has been given this takes It is anticipated that African people will gain more roles in in uencing continental trends and policies through the election no members in the Pan African Parliament AU pledges to defends sovereignty territorial integrity and indene of member states AU encourages the promotion of human rights and good covenants AU promotes de ne of the Africa39s quotcommon position on issues of interest to the continent and its peoplequot Au also pledges to pursue quotpeace security and stability on the continentquot The objective of promoting democracy and good governance cold assume extra signi cance once the PanAfrican Parliament evolves into an organ with full legislative powers Principles of the African Union AU in a Nutshell On 99999 The head 5 of State and Government of the Organization of African Unity declared the establishment of the African Union To address the rightful role of Africa in the local encomia While addressing multifaceted domical economic and political problems Main goal was to rid Africa of colonial and apartheid consequences Lagos Plan of action African Charter on Huma Nan People s Rights Africa39s Rarity Program for Economic recovery OAU Declaration on the Policies and SocieOEocniam Situation in Africa The Charter on Popular Participation Treaty stabling the Africa Economic Community AEC The vision of the African Union is that of quotan integrated prosperous and peaceful Africa driven bit its own citizens and representing a dynamic force in global arenaquot Have moved way from encouraging liberation movements to spearheading Africa39s development and integration Organs of the ALU The Assembly composed of Heads of State and government the supreme organ of the Union The Executive Council compose of ministers or authorizes designated by the governments of member states is responsible to the Assembly The Commission composed of the Chairperson the Deputy Chair son eight Commissions and staff members Each commissioner is responsible for a portfolio The Permanent representative Committee composed of permanent representatives of member states accredited to the Union Prepare work for the Executive Council Peace and Security Council created at the summit of Lusaka in July 200 PanAfrican Parliament is an organ to ensure the full participate no African peoples in government and economic integration of the continent Protocol relating to the composition powers functions and organization of the PanAfrican Parliaments in the process of rati cation ESOSOCC the Economic Social and Cultural Council and advisory organ composed of different social and professional groups of the Members states of the Union The Court ofJustice The Specialized Technical Committees Ex Rural Economic and agricultural Matters Financial Institutions African Central Bank Africa Monetary Fund African investment Bank AU Communion key Oran playing a central role in the daytoday management of the African Union lt represented the Union ad defends its interest s It elaborates draft common positions Of the Union Prepares strategic plans and policy for review by the Executive Council Ensures the14 mainstreaming of gender in all programs and actives of the Union NEPAD in a Nutshell The New Partnership for Africa39s Development Is a programmer of the African Union Begun in 2001 Primary objective of popover eradication promotion of sustainable growth and development and the empowerment of women through building genuine partnerships at country regional and global levels It is a blueprint for Africa39s development in the 21St century Wants to place African countries both individually and collectively on a path towers sustainable growth and development To half the marginalization of Africa in the globalization process To accelerate the empowerment of women To fully integrate Africa into the global economy Acceleration of regional and continental integration Forging new partnerships with the industrial world by ensuring that it changes the unequal relationship between African and the developed world Strategic focus To reduce the risk pro le of doing business in Africa To create the conditions conducive for investment high economic growth and sustainable environment To increase Africa39s competitiveness in the world encomia To transform the unequal and donorrecipient relation with the devised countries and mutilate institutions to a new partnership that is based on usual responsibility and respect To increase investment on the continent in order to ensure special and economic development Governed by the NEPAD planning and coordinating Agency Overseen by the NEPAD Heads of State and government the Orientation Committee and the Steering Committee