SOC 204 Week 3 Lecture Notes
SOC 204 Week 3 Lecture Notes SOC 204
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Scott Morrison on Thursday April 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 204 at University of Oregon taught by Dr. C.J. Pascoe in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 179 views. For similar materials see Intro Sociology in Social Science at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 04/16/15
SOC 204 Lecture Notes Week 3 The Three Forms of Symbolic Interaction Role Theorv DramaturgyI and Ethnomethodology Role Theog Roles are facets of the self eg father son baseball player etc Society functions correctly when everyone plays all their roles correctly Roles are enactments of a particular social status Social Status a position in society There are three types of statuses Ascribed Status a natural status you were born with like race Achieved Status a status that you have achieved like a PhD Master Status The status by which you most deeply identify typically the status off of which most people base their interactions with you Nonmaster statuses are called auxiliary statuses Role Conflict when a person s different roles create conflicting demands Role Strain when a single one of a person s roes creates conflicting demands Dramaturgy Erving Goffman theorized that social interactions can be analyzed like a theatrial production there is a frontstage and a backstage to every relationship The presentation of the Self depends on whether we are frontstage or backstage we may share different information and treat people differently depending on to whom we are speaking With every interaction there is an actor and an audience The actor is trying to get the audience to be convinced of their performance or their presentation of their ideal Self Face the positive interpretation of your Self that you want people to buy into quotLosing face occurs when the Self is presented poorly it is embarrassing to lose face Losing face disrupts the quotshowquot the actor makes a mistake Social interaction stops when this happens which Goffman believed to be the worst thing that could happen Because it is so uncomfortable to lose face people typicay try to ensure that no one does so we cover for each other so that social interaction does not stop Ethnomethodology Irving Garfinkel built on Goffman s insights He performed breaching experiments experiments in which a person would break social norms in order to better define those norms Garfinkel theorized that we all agree on the rules of a particular social situation When these rules are broken people become upset When social norms are broken to a large enough extent our reality must be called into question questioning reality can be very unsettling and can make people angry Groups and Networks Ossification The process by which a person s roles shape and create the Self The experience of one role can undermine previous experiences of other roles thereby changing the Self This often occurs in college when students slowly begin to disagree with their parents beliefs about the world Reference Groups the group real or imaginary who is used as a frame of reference by a social actor Reference groups influence the self they can change the personality If no one in your reference group can connect you to some way of becoming a particular self eg rockstar surgeon etc then you cannot become that new self Primary Groups groups with relationships that are longlasting and noninterchangeable like family Limited number of members people can t spontaneously join and leave Face to face interactions Primary groups don t exist for a particular purpose or goal Secondary Groups groups that exist for a particular purpose instrumental Relationships are short and interchangeable Members can join or leave nGroups the more powerful or popular group High social status OutGroups the less powerful marginalized group not necessarily smaller Low social status Groups are important because they are capable of exercising supraindividual control over individuals The Self is produced through groups Georg Simmel Simmel invstigated the size of groups and how the number of members affects the behavior of individuals What can we know just from the size of a group Dyad a group of two people One possible relationship Must have symmetrical effort on both sides of the group The most unstable type of group because when one member leaves the group ceases to exist Both members are completely dependent on the other and there are no secrets Triad a group of three people At three members the group now holds more power than the individual The group can still exist if one member leaves The three roles of the triad Mediator negotiates between other two members when there is a conflict between them Tertius Gaudens benefits unintentionally from conflict between other two members Divide et mpera benefits intentionally from conflict between other two members The larger the group the more possible relationships and the more complex the group becomes Small groups Face to face interaction Unifocal always No formal roles No hierarchy Party Multifocal No hierarchy No formal roles No turntaking of speakers Large Group Can be unifocal or multifocal at any time Strong hierarchy and formal roles Networks a set of relationships held together by ties between individuals Uniplex ties a simple tie A direct relationship between you and another person Multiplex tie a complex tie An indirect relationship involving friendsoffriendsoffriends that connects you to another person Narrative the sum of the stories embedded in a particular tie Embeddedness the degree to which ties are enforced through indirect connections Strength of Weak Tie Hypothesis Weak ties will get you more resources than strong ones Structural Hole a gap between two groups with complementary resources that could benefit from a closer connection with one another Weak ties bridge structural holes A more diverse social network is more beneficial in terms of resources People who bridge structural holes in order to diversify their network are able to quickly move up the social ladder Social Capitol the information knowledge of people and things and the connections that allow people to enter gain power in or leverage a group Developed when structural holes are bridged Social capitol of a society decreases when people don t help each other out Network Analysis Similar people cluster together by level of happiness health etc Network Effects things that happen in a part of a network that spread to other parts like STDs Emotions can travel through networks sad people make other people sad Inequality can also travel if you only associate with lower class people you don t have a way of obtaining the resources of upper class people Inequality is reproduced through clustered social networks
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