Lecture 11 Acquiring a Signed Language
Lecture 11 Acquiring a Signed Language PSY/LING 34
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This 34 page Class Notes was uploaded by Texana Sonnefeld on Friday April 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY/LING 34 at University of Arizona taught by Louann Gerken in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Language Development in Linguistics and Speech Pathology at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 04/17/15
Acquiring a Sign Language Our Questions Do children learning language without rich input make up For the lack of input in their generalizations Is there a critical or sensitive period for learning language Can linguistic ability be dissociated From general intelligence Is language a uni ed ability phonology syntax word learning How is language related to communication Sign Language or Sign Communication ls real language limited to a spoken modality If language can be acquired in either modality are the rates and processes similar Is there a critical period for learning signed language Who Acquires A Sign Language Only 5 oF deaF children have deaF parenfs fhereFore mosf children don39i learn a naiural sign language like ASL From birfh There are several fypes oF language exposure fhaf a deaF child is likely lo encounfer The parficular fype depends on parenfs and feachers educafional philosophy and child39s circumsfances ampli cafion and signal processing eq cochlear implanfs oralisf approaches signed language several varianfs and mixfures Types of Signed Language Used in lhe US Signed versions of English Signed Exacf English SEEZ and Signed English Easier For nonsigning reachers ro learn Supalla39s research suggesfs lhal if may be harder For dealc children ro learn as a rs r language Mixfure of Signed English and ASL Pidgin Signed not exact grammar American Sign Language ASL Types of Signed Language Used in rhe US 7 391 1 IL 1 w F 739 391 I LI 39 C 1 Na rural Signed Language Examples are ASL LSQ FSL BSL dealc children oF dealc parenls used lo be rhe only ones lo acquire a na rural signed language From bir rh lhere is a now greafer push lo leach hearing parenls oF dealc children lo sign so rhal rheir children can learn sign From lhem eg Ne rherlands ewerformofsign Signs vs Gesiures O Signed languages draw From same resources as ges rures and paniomime 0 hands 0 body 0 Face 0 Bu r are rhere any differences Signs vs Geslures Properlies of signs lhol differ From geslures convenlionolized and ossocioled wilh geographic regions movemenls reslricled lo hands For ease oF orliculolion mosl signs near Face For ease oF perceplion signs are nol iconic signs have phonology morphology and synlox if is possible a signed ullerance as grammalicol or ungrommolicol Basic Linguistic Structure of ASL Some signs correspond to a word but some correspond to several words Phonemes are subparfs of signs handshape certain shapes of the hand mean different things locaIion in terms of the body movemenI how the sign is moved Pal m orien l39a l39ion which way the palm is faced can create different meanings ASL Loca rion Phoneme Basic Linguislic Sfrucfure of ASL Morphology For a long lime if was 1 hough1L 1 ha1L sign languages including ASL had no morphology This is because morphemes aren391L added lo fhe beginning and endings oF signs as in ections are fo spoken words Morphemes are incorporafed info siqns Verbal morphology aspec1L like fense incorporafed info verbs Morphological marking of synfacfic cafegories verbs have larger movemenfs fhan noun counferparfs ASL Verbal Morphology ASL Verbal Morphology w GIVElHabituall GIVElMuItiplel I Wm GilliHall G f h ASL Synfacfic Cofegory Morphology Basic Linguisfic Sfrucfure of ASL Syn rax subject verb object Basic SVO word order bu r other orders possible Pronouns marked by spatial loca rion The Painf Sfory ASL Pronouns From fhe Painf Sfory Basic Sfrucfure of ASL In summary ASL and other sign languages have rhe componen rs Found in spoken languages phonology morphology syntax Buf rhese componenls are maniFesl differenlly due ro differences in modali ry Slages in lhe acquisilion of a signed language babeng bolh hearing and deaF children make a variely oF rhylhmic hand movements and geslures lhere is now evidence From Laura PeliHo lhal deaF children in addilion lo making lhese geslures also babble in lhe signed language lhal lhey are exposed lo signs and geslures have diFFerenl phonelic properlies deaF molhers respond lo babble wilh language bul respond lo ges rures wi rh aclions Slages in lhe acquisilion of a signed language rsf words some researchers have observed fhaf rsf signs appear earlier lhan rsf words 10 lo 12 mos and have hypofhesized fhaf fhe earlier appearance is due lo lack of molor consfrainfs however recenl sludies suggesf fhaf lhese observalions were misfaken and lhaf whaf fhe researchers were really observing was babble Slages in lhe acquisilion of a signed language Pelillo had a deaf research assislanl walch a video rape of a hearing child never exposed ro sign language The assis ranl noled all ins rances of words and Found 100 of rhem Clearly if is easy lo misinferprel geslures or babble as words Peli r ro claims lhal rs r words appear al rhe same lime in sign and speech and For bilingual children rhey oFlen appear on rhe same day Slages in rhe acquisilion of a signed language phonological proper ries oF rs r words bo rh hearing and deaF children make phonological simpli ca rions eg clus rer reduc rion in Speaking children free produced wi rh a closed handshape For signing cthren word combina rions appear be rween 18 and 22 mos in bo rh signing and speaking children Marking of nouns and verbs Signing children befween 2 and 3 years begin marking nouns and verbs and apply fhe sysfem 0 excepfion like ed over regularizafion Sfages in rhe acquisifion of a signed language spafially organized syn rax 2 0 3yearolds use word order 0 mark who did wha1L 0 whom la rer move ropic ro rs r posi rion Summary of Naiive ASL Developmen r Deaf children who are exposed lo a sign language From early in liFe go fhrough lhe same slages as hearing children learning spokenlanguage Babeng Simpli ca rion Overgeneraliza rion Dealc children born lo hearing parenls rs r exposure oFlen al a residen rial school For lhe deaF usually deaF schools don39i encourage ASL insiruciion is usually in Signed Exaci English SEE signed the way English is sand SEE is less easily learned lhan ASL residenis usually learn ASL From o rher children some learn ASL only as adulls Dealc children born lo hearing parenis Newpor r and Supalla age of learning aFFec rs degree of learning cri rical period 07 years like na rive 714 years worse Frozen Forms poor mas rery oF sub meaning uni rs children who learn From a poor model during early acquisi rion clean up rhe model Nicaraguan sign language crea red by 2 genera rions of children exposed ro very impoverished inpu r Summary on Acquisi rion of Sign Language Children learning ASL From bir rh From deaF paren rs show roughly rhe same s rages and errors as hearing children learning a Spoken language This is even rrue when rhe iconic proper ries oF signs should make imi ra ring paren rs easier Children learning ASL la rer aF rer age 7 show poorer mas rery oF morphology and syn rax The da ra on age oF acquisi rion oF signed languages appears ro be consis ren r wi rh rhe no red For spoken language Hypoiheses Abouf Crifical Period Hypothesis Counterevidence years oF exposure age oF arrival eFFec r even aF rer yrs oF exposure Genie e rc and deaF children born ro hearing in rerFerence From L1 parenfs older people have more demands predlc rs s ready decline no r sharp drop socialmo riva rional eFFec rs Few eFFec rs when sys rema rically res red None plus la rer brain damage is harder ro b f f f f raIn ma ura Ionplas ICI y recover From and bird song has a crilical Period Crifical Periods Sensmve parlor ends Stubsnng Plastic song 5 Semotyb Sen nrimnmIgt Irystallwed Spamws Inl Spring I IAutumn39 I SpIIng I I bUly 6 Sensorimotor Crystallnzcd y Le22 5g I I I I 25 60 llayHII zebra hnc hes lt SeIIson gt lt Sensow39r gt Scnsorimotor gt CIySIallizcd cnsonmom Crystalllizcd gt jl Plastlc 2391a SpIiIIg AULUHIIII I swing I IAULLIIIIIII I swim I Brainard and Doupg What songbirds teach us about learning Nature 2002 http mvwsun1n19r10 isc uqanmcal Pagedocs readingsWHITESt9phani9 Brainard 9e20and952000up99620r9vi9wpdf I ll Crifical Periods Birds raised in isola rion have abnormal song Birds deafened aF rer song exposure have abnormal song Birds can learn From raped song Sensi rive period can be ex rended by isola rion whi re noise reduced res ros rerone Criiical Period Summary There appears lo be a crilical period For learning language like a nalive speaker Learning aFer H101quot period enlails a differemL learning mechanism Crilical period isn 1L unique lo humans and appears lo be relaled lo hormones and olher brainaffecling chemicals Crilical period and our hree lheories mos r consis ren r wi rh Triggering bumL Associalionism and Hypolhesis Seleclion haven 1L concerned hemselves wilh CP yewL
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