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Ch 10 notes

by: Kathleen Quijada

Ch 10 notes BME3403 EABS

Kathleen Quijada
Broward College
GPA 3.46
Engineering analysis of biological systems EABS

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Engineering analysis of biological systems EABS
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This 19 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kathleen Quijada on Saturday April 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BME3403 EABS at Florida International University taught by Dr.Brown in Fall2015. Since its upload, it has received 134 views. For similar materials see Engineering analysis of biological systems EABS in Biomedical Sciences at Florida International University.

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Date Created: 04/18/15
3 Vision I interEric 4 u39isiboiar System o W Si buicir About this Chapter o What are the senses How sensory systems work Body sensors and homeostatic maintenance Sensing the external environment r 39 Mechanisms and pathways to perception gt Wung orm phantom into CWQI 5mm oi an D39L Ih WW0 VERA O t Kat b rYJtIIIx two crm39jf ur onS SUM shmuii mowAS e CNS son 31 or a a n it I shut ii in r i muml m 7 r i V 1 s r 2 1 MW i EweW W w s f SPOVWSC39WDM brain Nam musc cs I L mm rgt General Properties of Sensory Systems Stimulus am B Xi M 3 w WWwa 2S vquotquot10ujr39c i quot I v Receptors f 39 Sense organs 41 FE w b Transducer Hump 7 39 i I s CNSintegration b on War A a V I m y The Human Bram AV5 Cruernom m S39Li m ZV 9 g 0 VU R7K at it 5 weaveit Mm mm x l t b fbtl can iv t also A I W mixHum General Properties of Sensory Systems Sensory Receptor Types r t pOS V Clo pain a gNM P y 39 39 4 Simple receptors Com lex neural t I er a a SQQCHM V x m n5 MM M V We 1 MM 4 View 39 Specral senses Iquot 39J H O h t 39 t 139 k quot 39 Chemoreceptors 39 JF QLQr nt LO A 39 Mechanoreceptors hypo O Puntgt5in UL Doltgtc quot 3 0 Thermoreceptors zl fV YWQM kWhVa QFLS39SVV Q 39 Photoreceptors l cjln r a Ollactory pathways from the nose Orciecl to the oltactory cortex 0 Most Sensory pathways project to the thalamus Nose o The thalamus modmcs and relays intormatinn to cortical centers V S quot 234quot 0 Equmunum pathways l prolecltmhccymctlum To Que L gpcciul somf VCOLP JIV FS OW Q 39 c c 39tCAl s y n mp3 3 quotthat l d qs e W C M O Van g Witta GMTm dim HUM m 5 TWM 01m dawn qu 317 ilSta 48 Figure 04 Sensory pathways Sm that 5 an 5i 3 3m 0 or n gt lo Luwua but Cfom tml U Vf S Tina 30 3me in we O39Y ut gatemt Q Jrlnalomug Prim aw 3 may BUGSOWS Lorch Sensory Receptor Types The Cerebral Cortex 24 391 mama 39 Three kinds of functional areas q m M t t Specializedmceptm 03 5Y apse 0 or areas l Sensory areas fl Association areas Myellnated axon f x J 5 V I gs ca body 4 I A 39 7 fQ Cen body A 39l j if t 3 n 4 2 a Slmple receme are neurons 2 r Impom Mquot f s a w a M n tissuecapsulcs onto sensory nations 39nitiallng an action potentlaL WMOQ WWW NEW a quotimp 0 ram olt Wt lotum tum mmth mg A war i germ mvvi bor or 63ole Virago 39 Dim OOCM l gt xxDEA S39eCASlCiCIU03 Functional and Structural Areas of the Functional and Structural Areas of the Cerebral Cortex Cerebral Cortex 39 Premolor cortex Central sulcus Scnwry area and milled association orquot b Corpus Primal somatosenso U 3 Pmmotor cortex 39 Emuquot ry Q 39 b Frontal cailosum m Somatosonsory eye Iieid N I association cortex Motor Iron quotIOIOT area Primary motor Contra sutcus Primary somatosonsory cortex Frontal oyo Hold Prerronlal 39 Pnhonul codx com K I s association am Working memory tor spatial tasks Area tor General interpretation mentallzallon Panoto oocipltnl sulcus area outlined by cars Executive aroa tor 39 Processes emotions mlalod to no 5 Working memory and social Interactions tor obiectqecan tanks 39Wa39 Visual Solving complox fxc a m association mumtask orooicms omnokoma area Auditor association Ottactary bulb Calcarlnc sulcus Primary 39 Primary Olfactory tract 39 visual cortex audit 1 I conesquot Fornlx Olloctory cortex Parahippocampal 0quot gyms Figure I 3 I I 17 Small taste Rages Special Senses External Stimuli Special Senses External Stimuli Vision 1 Pnnlurysomatzl 3 23 8 Denali 8mm Smell 39 Equilibrium W S mml Co A a Most sensoq pathways 39h u u d project to the thalamus I The thalamus modifies and relays miormatlon to cortical centers Vl li l Corlex C V l Q 0 Equilibrium pathways V U o 39 l 0W 5 protect to the cerebellum quot gt 7 Somatic r senses Figmc 104 Sensory pathways Sensory Areas Sensory Homuncqus Motor Homunculus Mo r 5 2 g a 2 E S35 2 a 3 a quot 7 i H Mack 90 5Y9 Page quot vquot Ups ughquot9 Jaw w 1 w Tongue quot C Swallowing Copyright 17 2005 Pearson Figure 31 Pr rows 000 bur eggwreak 0mm Q n gt 0W3 A ewe r S Liner ow w x 9 m 3 516 Figurc 1310 1 a I Homunculus Sam 3mg Burro gqu v U ubm gems NIH mm or O M m WVW 395 mm but Mor ODL MMQ iii 01 y cojrfons m 4mm ooctj Mao rmL Scour 3M A o Q 5 50 hm hm Mm Ewa Mic Qmsev 3 wvh yk Somatic Senses Internal Stimuli Touch Temperature Pain itch Proprioception Pathway HCNS songs Somatic Pathways 1 H Mace623 nnit Q39mobuui om gmthaw port h39ml mm idiotl potwh w l Bibi W39Noivtjmlgjk 4 n WA SVMOWSCS them x l Receptor 1395quot 1 Threshold Action potential 39 Sensory neurons Integration Receptive field Multiple levels S Wot W7 S Y o iTJK Wyn es 7Ler 39mltrv tR mm m Satyr ij Al CLUTBHOMTQ S39Mox qll W30 aim 1 Letc Lemma Sensory Modality lm143 VlCV i S Somatic Pathways 57 EN A 39 J 4 F54 3n th Loca 0 a 3 7L l 7 Q Ct n o i a 3 a amp APh 390 etiefd 3 S 7 W Th Mm V L Intensity A r L a 39 399 St lee4m Q an RLV UIl gt 39WUS thalamus f 39 Nu DU s mil 0V GLONFS bxiswn h m Fine much vvbvallon and proormm m J pan w ems n9 midline n the medulla l Pmn lemaewmra t 1 39 and cause much l 39 cross the mantle r r in the spinal cord 2 A JL SPINAL CORD RS on A lb FIEka Mtg gr S31 m oi l m a m Figure 109 pammys crussthc body s midlinc M ima touch Woman vlblaLon aim Janitori LL W41 3483 l lLCl QSK J Whatnmm Ill mh pair P 77 t r r A Dill3 mm 395 U amp 13 ugh Sensory Modality Lateral Inhibition wag 39 on l 8 Many primary sensory b When fewer neurons 1 Pm sumulus 0 neurons converging onto converge secondary receptive 1 I x 0 a single Secondary neuron fields are much smaller The 9quotquot s 1 creates a very lagermcpliva Compass with points two stimuli activate separale a 33 lield The two stimuli wrll separated by 20 mm pathways and are perceived 39 I 8 Gimm be perceived as a single as dislincl stimuli g pom because both stimuli a 2 mm the same receptive 4 W V W g B C lield 1 7 i 7 e 3 F l Przmary neuron g 39 Toms level j 8 response rs propartlonal 4 quot ff39f 99 c e V 39 Renmvri i J lt3 nywinr 439 k l l l 52 g i a M v SECONld39y 7 n vi irriz lt91 as i tum P 1 L lt L 1 P 39 7 v 39 39 thway closest to the shrnuius inhibits nc 3 bars sensory neurons r l 39 amp Secondary w neurons sensory one Signal 9 93 Two signals 90 to the brain 39r quotquotquotquot quot to the braln in tum C40 Ll ivn m3Twopomldiscrimimunn N E m h m JL KCml cw wet my in Alr crmce who yum same A pedr 3L Po billml C1130ij Mbol0139tM limiter151 77 SYXH MOW I DNil 4 93 Jr Jr l i Signal 39WCNL Ramton 1 M n lt14an m We a R e Si 5 a 39 Shr u l ecf Touch pressure I Touch pressure Mechanoreceptors Inhibition oi lateral neuron nnances perceplicn of 5imulu5 M 39 Free nerve endings Merkel receptors 39 sense Sleady plesswe Meissner s corpusclc 39 Pacrnlan corpuscles andtexture V responds to flutlcrand SlfOkan movements 5 Ruf ni corpuscles l Merkel receptors 0 Meissner s corpuscles Baroreceptors we 1 quot3 T t w 1 v f rd V yquot l x I w I haui wcelrnzntls mm x 392 c incur stimuli H S t KQ x iy C b sensory nerves 39 Pomp Wk X Pacinian corpusclc s mny signals to 5 39 quot 1 spinal cord i Ruf ni corpuscle responds to skin Stretch l A Figure 10 1 1 Touchpressure mwplors Temperature Clejcd gkowp paw3 Cold receptors Warm receptors Pain receptors Q V r 3 1 0 Sensory coding Intensity Duration vaU39NKOVVN SYY Rum HA v u Jlou n OVW I Temperature ulstimuluc m y wnrlnft 391quot quotor quot393quot w r 1 Z r It s 4 so Hui 2 r 3 nu Lu 9 d S I r e m i 39Tuv 1 29g ulor parenm39 o Smear panan w n Gene 0 quuencfaramm sumglh md dur m I magmad n the 9012mm 5 Wima39 to vary amine umuus tagger zone wme men my 04mm 01 3 genes 01 scum 4 g pcwrmals 5 pVDDOI JWJi 39 lo shmmrs dunawn 1 1 3 I e v r t quott t 1 r w a t 5 39 oquot t k v r N A7 51551139363 J T f fw 39f i139Lquotquot 41 39 w W v v r lt C 1vv 2quot vs 1quot I Figure 107 Sammy coding for stimulus intensity and duration SVVM P Oo m Skian 93 0er b FCtL rubbm t lm 7136 r m and via 0 a CV Pain and Itching v v rimx Hi 3 tom CM Reflexive path e Itch a Fast pain Slow pain 39 vif rt3xcj 39 Thin ex mvm POLm 4 WWW tow amt n4 SOW BigotM Max 9 o 13 JP U 3 0 YKQ m ML 9 6 Hrs s c 3 10 If gmA5 Oquotfo signal a s LLtuuj Pathways ufltch from Skin m Brain Wands ma DemuLlp devmaljumiou l 1 I 1 I 1 t 3mm frko m w may 10 mm m Oi HJJ icep 39er if 0N S broth quot v 5m P C V Gate Control Theory of Pain Pain mg W Poi m W 1 quotfquot m cjomlolmxlad i H39krc 31h 3Q m in AQ h 3 1M 9 39 gtu Modulation Thalamus Gate control Magnification Analgesic drugs 15W quotAmtquot i ri mmvhyn 39T39lofxrl W xcnl t a J c PM v i n O iates M A I I I lbuwm p p X J A B A 3 P f y o A 1617 tam Strong naxniui Va15 CL quot7 14 54 lb 9514 l l Jo LL 3 V brain Figure 1012 The gale comm lbcory ofpain modulation quotupwighl c SinJl ruhn n lu I In imhluhmg nlitrjaxmvf39mrintnrp 39 Referred Pain Olfactor Sense of Smell Olfactory cell Chemoreceptor Humans have about 350 different types of odorant receptors Mice 1200 Skin Olfactory cilia lusuasmuiusl anawwmay Owen Olfactory nerve 39 CNS integration Amygdala Hippocampus Olfactory 39 l w l i mgi r lelur 1 l mumn in puM39JJ39Jngim lti39nyimint umming gm H33 Re m d Pal raymgr 1 TAdi39i39m hlumlmn lrr ru hihmi in l n iminquoturm39nm Pira Fcth gepfum quot2 9 zoom Ham 3 n 04 CLC VYLQ LO q M Olfactor Sense of Smell Olfactor Sense of Smell T xlnfT i F OF VHF FA TryliW VSIFM c Cluclory cells m the endow h v thew no or names The in reputed 17 new cm were mom my me no 139 way lu ma clladary ou39u I upwaskl i Malmm lzdmzllnn im yummungm likhllmn quotil1 1i p HEW 1044C ANNUMY SUMMARY Oll39 CliOII Th irate 39hMLL gulf s weei W g va owl Lan 5W4 1 clap an 5 mw on waqm 486 z Savory be MW 8 A T Mum ginl Taste Chemoreceptors Hearing Mechanoreceptors W o We I Taste buds V M Taste cells Mechanism 39 Sound waves Conduction Transduction quot39 Air 39 Integration Boi e Thalamus Flundb Mem ranes Gustatory cortex quotSpecific hunger To hair cell 5 6mm W 33 amp WV 11er is Figure 1016 Summary of luau lmnsduction l39vmngh I39 u minim lmn in FUblluhlnguw lcnmm u1ilnm5 l mwhghx c mul39umm Maume In puhluhm 1 lswlnmm l39ummmg l X19 Sgt9amp2 PULLCL em lmy ElfU5 ll Sl A 0k SPCCLFy c quotflin H75 91 D0 0 a WW WK H h max WC N V1 9mm U r MM qquot W k w 11386 mm Om MW 398 wem qwzw Hearing Mechanoreceptors 0 Sound waves smu av V The smoos as stunned r H to the membrane of to the ma II UDX39L W vmrancns al the ova wmdcw treat uid x waxy wmvn the cochlea 1 0 The ux waves gush quot on me exib e membranes at the cochlea duct 3 Energy hen the waves u ansferv the r Figure 1049 Smmd mmsmission through the car n d vu5 2 ringMj Rm Ours 303 cu org 3 1 WW S Mm 0H 4H LhM TVraJr gm um 9r t F U m BY39QL Q 50 m 3 ampA3 Haw MW rsl LMQ U kiwis 09 Me A 9amp1 W Wm Of Hearing Hair Cell Transduction Hearing Hair Cell Transduction l CLZNPJ VIT l3939irl f39i39i v139Zil39l C 239n39L 39JL Cl39x lUlsz z 1313 r 4V g c 39 Fluid wave moves it 2 Tectoral membrane Steriocilia move H 0mm SUgtTU39K 39 Ion channels open Depolarization of 0 16 A a NT release W NTU39LH 3N mill 39 Sensory nerve AP lDl Z hlo p Q JrL l Tympanu doc dike exams xix ma qu iLCM Mom branW Cow Sf S C39deio PQFLn1bn5 ShcxnyXj Sl hc j bv Zii 0im7L 75quot lVTOTRCKXI Hearing Hair Cell Transduction Hearing Integration and Problems 3 u wax Amu me or me on chl nel39 b Excitation When the nan 661quot mm m one C hmhnlon 4 ire n r cell her n 0 arr scin and a ionic signal 139 sen39 by m dl39t ChOn quot V r quot 39 quot 39 5393quot source sensor neurbn a1 mic12ml irocue39Ky m 1M assocmac 7 perpolanzor quot and sansor Mums auralcw of sound sensory neuron decreases 3 Intensity A l quot39 r Frown 1 I 7 x 39 t A I e I quotr Sound takes longer om quot 239 7 gs k e I V v A I J 3 n bl H39w ifquot 39 V J echanr 39s l 1 mu 5 K 7 lt 397 quot gt r rugrm h r I 39 L L H 39 Siemo lm u u aw it y I u r L m 15 r G a v H to reach right ear 5 MM d gt H i v a m 39 Integrztilon g LR I Meua 5 Tl 3 39 i 2 K Surf 395 quot3t739l Thalamus Q x 3 K 16 U 5 Auditory cortex N E 4 TL I M 3 5 Ac m mienws 53 s r 1 gt Acnmpomnlua my a r s 0 Manama poienw olhnir cell 5 W Deafness S i quot1quot Ti A Conductive 1 x 30 iniquot quotI in W 7 ici i m k 5 7 V Sensonneural i v was a m A 5w W mm 331342 9 bonny lorcL one39139 39rvzunlcr mac atones lD cumulus 4L quot the brain first t 39TLW U Action polo his In prlmary sensory neuron J r a I L v n l i i r l lwillwlirlslv r l H V Tnpwewo39head Luj E Otth 3 A A L f 39 QT c Figure 104 Signal mammalian in hilirL cllS W V l I39lgtm39c 1053 MVJUW OTSW d quot SOsindquot L WdJ u wadW g an Clam 4 Lamm6 Swill 9 3 MW mm a 445me m WV WJ Cum SemA5 air Fill LA gparg r I tenet I out Lom39mmir a Gaston 1 Log bva gtwixAgLL W 39 quotquot39quot Q0 m ateF CLW Localization of Sound Underwater Hearing Integration and Problems 0 The hasLav merr ibrar e n25 vmllb u SLEBSMWII is sound b quotV wave Frequency along its engm l e393 3 comquot mm me bran lranslales as nlormatian about the p nth cl sound V l i r i A l 1 v AA J quot r 39 39 wx39 S 39339quot i u 39l quot 39 er 2 n w 39 f i l i a A Sm region rt aquot mm L l U 39v i M uCCr39 v i Sound r 2 c w t i a t quoti z murdwmom on land is largely exp aine y t e mec amsms o intensity differ ences and temporal or phase differences During submersion these differences are largely 39 400 Hz lost due to the increase in underwater sound velocity and cancellation of the head39s 2 Ail acoustic shadow effect because of the similarity between the impedance of the skull quot and the surrounding water Bone conduction plays the main role in underwater hearing quotwax i A l tr 7 77L 39A A J W39lwi39l lquotl39l quot39r x B E I 7 39vquot39 739 v i 1 x i Aer s 39 4x r t l r V n H 77 i 39 Ea39i l39tm Heurenema i a 91035 F1 lar391m39 quotmm Figure 1022 Sensory coding for pitch 0 Stub ox Cotiquot 97 LOWMM unK UH C bower ate moo3m A m 9 Viwwi i 51 tie m lt4 a La ctr Equilibrium Mechanoreceptor Body balance Body position Body movement Propioceptors Vision Equilibrium Mechanoreceptor integration Medulla Cerebellum Thalamus Cortex Vestibular apparatus at l J l l 0 W CLX Xi H lo CLW Lal K 2 quot 2 W1 5 Ctrcumin f tttj ROWClth h h h I Pigmluz zmxtmlmuussygmpamwaysibruquilihrimn LON H I 2 19 Lu g SUM Cur Lular C MWL15 Q 90mg Mouth LINj 1 i 3 Equilibrium Vestibmar Apparatus SemiCircular Canals of the Vestibular Appa ratu s o gr b a Mn Gravity CU b CA LLLJLQ Have Posterior Horizontal and superior semicircular Canals caldte CWStals 39 They sense Rotational Acceleration In various directions Hair cells 0 The Cristae within the Ampula enlarged chamber at the end of each canal are the sensory receptors Endolymph moves the gelatinous cupula with the hair cells embedded in it and Endolymph Fluid moves which stimulates stimulates vestibulocochlear nerve CN Vlli Each Crista which c0nsists of h Y up t o no 3 Cupula Embedded Hair cells activate CN Vlll 3C Bk m u L m low2 t acl Pog ihw 39 01Qx yh Cl W LOUv u Citcom JAR 4 I rWl com brieante 30 l g C CNSCA by ETD c j VDfU 0 at n g c 1 UV MR 3 5 i I Ci ire Or COM CL39 5 m 910028 Wm Show n l Equilibrium Vestibular Apparatus Otolith Organs of the Vestibular Apparatus siwgniar M iv L ITUUiAll Immanue Otolith Organs of the Utricle and Saccule Sense Linear Acceleration and Head Position They are arranged horizontally Utricle if head tips back gravity causes othliths to slide and vertically Saccule senses vertical forces such as an elevator dropping Macula are the sensory receptors of the utricle and saccule Otoliths are crystals that move in response to gravitational forces m C l H La lee1W cogsmm Figure Iii231 h ANA I OMY SUMMARY Wstibulnrsppamlus iwmw A teemaw W 9 xv 0 b0 Nowinc is c Vtsii n q 5i mwuNnl 56 Equilibrium Vestibular Apparatus VisionziiPhotoreceptors 0 Reflected light translated into mental image Pupil limits light lens focuses light Retinal rods and cones are photoreceptors c quot I v39 r 17 77 quot39v I m Jw 39 qum V 39 V4 V tiglcrece lm I h 1 Social V grin v M quot quotquot39 f a 1 Marc figment epxheiium ilrJll Figure ll 23c d ANATOMY SUMMARY Vestibularppamtus quotquotl Figure HG l holomccplors in the even what is Sifrnutotrir i by quot YOU WC NEH W find Yoo Re kmmyuxw s H ebt 8 A09 Lle 0mm 6w mam dam Cat Phoi b N CLPTQWZS lit QB Cataract g 9 ctSh H0 n m camsiz l suivu Liluuuuzt int pinJunk 0 1mm JEmrw alumna e 35 jgK t jt rt 39Jrhiwrvxciaulg Y D tm gun 4 CNS I t quotI I SpurLONquot bYCAl m NH WNWmt LMS Um 1L vows bevel rhm H bbtoa ct Imam HimW bum Figure 3 The Naurovascular Unit of V the Retina Under normal oondrtions moodvessel endolhchat cells and pericytes asuocytes Muller ceus and neurons are inumately connected to estabnsh the blood rennet barrier to control numeral ow to the neural retina awarding energy balance to mainlain the proper ionic environment 10 neural signaling to regulate synaper lransmnssion and to provrde adaptable responses to the environment In allow lmamp brown Ptth o am to r Human retim x cl x ghjl I39MHI cum Humm Ln firl hdung lu39nnmml39mrmmg w Urm w z UAW R a V1 SC Ui S ku 1639 0t vquot Ct tom L A Cx tw OV M4 x6 th A a39 AC 4 com1m Rt I M quotTL 3 14 c K 3 7 U V 3 h 1 N gt5 o C x Mr N a Um 3 f quot1 t u m ave x 39 g m 334 4 3111 quotmewcah m T e VC g b V 454 r 7 V x q UH3L VLW bejfodxtbq mu Sgt QJ XWNQ J m VW its Retina Right Eye Retina Left Eye warn 2 7 gm hl bws CWL saws mwwclg ve WHC Nr1 00mm Q akmxt Ariter w an 31W M56 W t Oman m eur W m dxroxhtH s Sc Lama w m39k 9W L1 J v Wan b LOxH Omc A LCM if 6 w Mn WEB SM quot High ammumx I Accumulationsoflipidsleak MW 1 bf from surrounding capillaries and microaneuryisms they may form a circinate pattern E N P KUTW Q 426W 9 3 c AM LcwmucaL krpr 0k0t3wmio Panretmal laser photocoagulan on 5 m 01 Fm V OlOl E CEDUOH Elna LOCal Integration PhOtoreceptlon and Local integration Wnlghtvision m color amp details 39 8 m converge integrate APs L Worm morc g mama gtin rumr V a n M Err i A 7 a 7 f H i n 7 f i 39 Figure 10 35 ANATOMY SUMMARY The Retina Retina More vetan Henna More uewn 39 m monochromatic 1 Wind e gt 3 Cal m red green amp blue 0 Cplu i 5f ii 39 Christa was 39 wk53 I lg from gbggx ix1bm Melanin granules MCWLQCB Prevents reflection to Figure 1038 l hoiormplors rods and cones oi Pnotmramouctmn 31quot narkressr mat Sin is macaw CGMP 5 h qn and ion channels are J tinal released cascade Na channel closes Kquot rizatlon 1quot 39 f opens hyperpola CC39Zn Pigmem epithelium can Reduces NT release Me mum2 pcmnnai m l as OrnV lj V C VC re ease of neu onto mixnu no m lt v39rt ls itwgii39itmn 0i 83952th m PF39Q39FPpTl 39l Bipolar 39 Ganglion Movement Color Optic nerve 39 Opticchiasm Optictract Thalamus Visual cortex Figure l020h c Neural mllnmys for vision and the papillary rcl39lcx PHOEOUBHSGUCUOU c in me Hi pause m my cps Relan ccnvcmod lo an insctve 1cm r0 0 0 g gt o h Hauo da39laru cv release uucvuwu In 1090mm lo 339quotng 0 light liigun 1040 l lmnuunsduclion in rods ndil vbiful EMA 09W m3i Le 09 laxaha s ALl39td b BLV Ml vfsvcu 1143 grew oemb vam sda qu nah VlEUOU Hug labial Summary 39 Sensory pathway receptor sensory neuron5 amp CNS Somatic senses touch temperature pain amp proprioception communicate body information to CNS Special senses taste smell hearing equilibrium amp vision Outside conditions for CNS integration into perception Receptors transduce mechanical chemical or photon energy into GPs then to APs quot LCMA 9C1 I l i I l r I i v K I d k l 5 15 l gt 3911 biting LW39X Cm a p s cc user 1 A 5p 3 i a


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