Hist 347 Week 3 Lecture Notes - New Economic Policy and Peripheral Russian Territories
Hist 347 Week 3 Lecture Notes - New Economic Policy and Peripheral Russian Territories Hist 347
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Johanna Murphy on Saturday April 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 347 at University of Oregon taught by Julie Hessler in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 92 views. For similar materials see USSR/Russia in History at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 04/18/15
HIST 347 History of USSRRussia Week 3 Lecture Notes NEP Part 1 Heart of a Dog Discussion Mikhail Bulgakov o Bulgakov s family fought for the Whites Bulgakov was an army doctor for the Ukrainian Army 0 Stayed in Russia even as most of his family left 0 Lived in Moscow never really approved of new regime 0 Stalin was fold of some of his writing which prevented him from being jailed 0 Wasn t able to publish but worked in theater 0 Book and play of Heart of a Dog banned until 1987 o In the 19203 scientific experiments similar to those in the book were being tried in Russia 0 A Russian doctor tried grafting animal glands into humans 0 Pavlov experimented with animals using vivisection Heart of a Dog 0 Doctor adopts a stray dog for experiment of putting human testes and pituitary gland into him 0 Pituitary gland actually turns dog into a human though he retains some animal attributes 0 Sharikov the doghuman hybrid causes so much chaos that the doctor eventually reverses the experiment and replaces the dog s pituitary glands Class Depictions o newly formed house committee the new Soviet bureaucracies were focused on equalizing space 0 Doctor Preobrazhensky has 7 rooms wants 8 0 Moscow was so overcrowded that many workers were renting comers of rooms 0 City began to shrink again during the Civil War as many workers abandoned cities due to hunger 0 Large apartments usually confiscated 0 Totally unrelated people sharing apartments called communal apartments 0 Educated people refer to each other very formally first name and patronymic but would refer to others by first or last name only 0 Doctor Preobrazhensky isn t willing to call Sharik the dog by his chosen formal name 0 Referring to people different based on class was something Bolsheviks were strongly against 0 Doctor Preobrazhensky is allowed to keep his apartment because he treats a lot of upper class patients and because he threatened to leave and no longer treat disorders 0 Preobrazhensky has more than most people in Moscow at the time would have had 0 Eats luxury foods like caviar 0 Has dining room 0 Whole understanding of the world is based on class 0 Sexual disorders were considered a product of the bourgeoisie lifestyle 0 Bolsheviks believed the Soviet lifestyle would be healthier and sexual disorders would disappear Why Was it Censored 0 Sharikov is shown as a member of the proletariat and is also crass vulgar and has a criminal mind 0 Bormenthal and Preobrazhensky are depicted in positive ways 0 Defend having a 7room apartment 0 The crimes committed by the man that he got the brain from were genetic 0 Biological impulses for crime were passed on to the dog 0 Soviet Union was against the concept of biological determinism considered people products of their social environment 0 Pointed out economic hardships created by the revolution 0 Collar as a symbol of class distinction among the dogs Emphasis on documents revealed bureaucratic nature of new regime o Bolsheviks were criticizing their own party for being too bureaucratic 0 One of the only ways they were allowed to complain Part 2 New Economic Policy New Economic Policy NEP Announce by the 10th party Congress Civil War was basically over but there were still lots of small rebellions o Kronstadt sailors rebelling for more democratic system Replaced requisitioning with a tax in kind 0 No more armed brigades taking crops by force Allowed revival of private enterprise and market relations 0 Factories and shops reopened Currency eventually stabilized after long period of runaway in ation Helped revive the economy Nepmen new bourgeoisie accumulated lots of wealth What Changed Permanently Elimination of monarchy and Duma Leadership roles for Communists Bolshevik party strongly disciplined while the government wasn t 0 Once a decision was made it was final and no other Bolsheviks were allowed to debate it Continued to have participatory component Soviet Factory Committees etc Substantial state violence in years before the revolution 0 Regime continued to use violence occasionally to keep citizens in line even into the 1920s Social Relations and Culture Dramatic changes due to Bolshevik s policy of class warfare and party control Class hierarchy turned upside down 0 Became a bad thing to have been a member of the upper classes 0 Elevated proletarians legally above the upper classes 0 Nobility and parts of the bourgeoisie were not allowed to vote denied certain aspects of citizenship 0 Important to be able to assert lowerclass identity People not addressed by namepatronymic old formal way but as comrade o Genderneutral conveyed equality Religion Media Bolsheviks viewed religion as false consciousness that fooled lower classes into seeing oppression as virtuous o The opium of the people 0 Concerned with enlightening the religious masses Change from official religion to official atheism Lenin wrote antireligious memo to Communist leaders saying people s starvation was the best opportunity to strike at the church Nationalized church property and seized church valuables Antireligious as a whole no preference given to certain faiths Saw traditional patriarchal family as an old bourgeoisie institution 0 Saw women as form of oppressed class Women gained equal rights and in theory equal pay and work opportunities 0 Right to divorce was made easier although women became angry about it because men were using it to divorce their wives much more than women using it 0 First country to legalize abortion Trying to achieve idealistic emancipatory society After October 1917 Bolsheviks shut down all hostile media Once they gained control they were even more concerned with controlling the media Total control 19171980s o All media had to report to a committee of the Communist Party 0 Specific instructions about what they had to print Eaer Soviet Nationalities Policy o Prerevolutionary Russia was hugely diverse 0 Russian empire included lots of non Russian groups 0 Bolsheviks debated what to do about various territories o Lenin supported principle of national selfdetermination separate union republics for nonRussian peoples 0 Complicated because over 200 ethnic groups 0 Largest territories got union republics Uzbekistan Kazakhstan Ukraine Armenia Georgia 0 Tried to have smaller ethnic unions for smaller groups Chechnya Dagastan o Bolsheviks were willing to extend power throughout old Russian Empire 0 Conquered nonRussian periphery by force often with the help of local Russian population 0 During the 1920s supported nonRussians with territorial structure language policy education and affirmative action 0 Wanted to raise literacy rates and number of educated people in nonRussian territories 0 State sent out ethnographers to help with developing alphabets 0 States were supposed to use their own language for government Socialist Transformation of Daily Life 0 Began mid1920s almost as soon as region was incorporated into the Soviet Union 0 Bolsheviks were antireligious which for many in Central Asia felt like an attack on Islam a key part of their identity 0 Particular directed at patriarchy and family roles 0 Many women were veiled paid bride prices men could have multiple wives 0 Focused on liberating women through education so they could go on to form labor brigades for themselves
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