Chapter regarding Emotion
Chapter regarding Emotion PSY1001
U of M
Popular in Intro to Psych
Popular in Psychlogy
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Date Created: 04/19/15
CHAPTER ELEVEN EMOTION pages 412453 Emotion mental state or feeling associated with our evaluation of our experiences o emotion and reason aren t necessarily opposites o no complete agreement in what causes our emotion Discrete Emotions Theorv theory that humans experience a small number of distinct emotions that combine in complex ways 1 are rooted in their biology 2 serves one or more distinctive evolutionary functions that are essentially the same in all of us o brains cortex thinking evolved after than limbic system emotion emotional reactions come before thoughts o expressions emerge without direct reinforcement byproducts of innate motor programs o Charles Darwin pointed out similarities of emotional expression of humans and nonhumans o angry snarl of dogs sneer of humans 0 high pitch sounds friendly interactions low pitch sounds hostile interaction Eugene Morton 0 sharing of evolutionary ancestor same behavior leads to perhaps these reactions share the same evolutionary origins o universality of emotion cultures 0 however similarities may be due to shared experiences rather than shared evolutionary heritage Paul Ekman ruled this out study in New Guinea isolated from Western Culture 0 Primary Emotions small number perhaps seven of emotions believed by some theorists to be crossculturally universal happiness disgust sadness fear surprise contempt anger Secondary emotions alarm fear and surprise hatred anger and disgust 0 display rules crosscultural guidelines for how and when to express emotions problem some cultures don t agree with what facial expressions go with what emotions ex greetings by kissing on the cheek teaching girls its okay to cry but boys its not etc culture influences expression not emotion itself o each primary emotion is associated with a distinctive constellation of facial expressions 0 emotions and physiology making face with emotion alters bodily reactions 0 Real vs Fake Emotions Pan Am smile movement of mouth but not the eyes Egnitive Theories of Emotion theories proposing that emotions are products of thinking o the way we interpret a situation influences what we feel in response to it o JamesLange Theory of emotion theory proposing that emotions result from our interpretations of our bodily reactions to stimuli 0 William James and Carl Lange 0 Ex encounter bear in woods get afraid and run away They think we are afraid because we run away o Somatic Marker Theorv theory proposing that we use our gut reactions to help us determine how we should act unconsciously 0 Antonio Damasio modern day thinking 0 somatic means physical 0 Ex heart pounding on first date use this to determine what to do next ask out on a second date 0 PAF pure autonomic failure deterioration of nervous system neurons don t experience increase autonomic activity but no trouble making decisions suggest somatic markers aren t NECESSARY for wise choices but give guidance o CannonBard theorv theory proposing that an emotionprovoking event leads simultaneously to an emotion and to bodily reactions 0 Walter Cannon and Phil Bard alternative model than the JamesLange Theory because they say physiological changes occur too slowly to trigger emotional reactions 0 in the bear example the sight of the bear triggers being afraid and running 0 numerous regions of limbic system hypothalamus and amygdala play key role in emotion o Twofactor theory of emotion theory proposing that emotions are produced by an undifferentiated state of arousal along with an attribution explanation of that arousal 0 We experience arousalalertness from an event and then we seek to explain the source of arousal in which we then experience an emotion Figure it out then we label it 0 Ex encounter bear aroused and prepared to fight figure the source probably has something to do with bear label arousal as fear 0 Dutton amp Aron s bridge studya female asked males to take surveys and gave them her number She approached them either on a sturdy bridge or a swaying one More males from the second group called her We believe the source of arousal was due to the environment swaying bridge Unconscious Influences on Emotion o automatic behaviors the automatic generation of emotion there is no voluntary influence on our part we automatically produce a response we don t plan it o mere exposure effect Repeated exposure to a stimulus makes us more likely to feel favorably toward it familiarity breeds comfort o facial feedback hvpothesis theory that blood vessels in the face feedback temperature information in the brain altering our experience of emotions o Emotions are based on facial features Make a big grin we will have the emotion of goofy o holding pen example between teeth you are more likely to smile between lips you are more likely to frown o Crying social signal cue that we re upset and in need of emotional comfort Nonverbal Expression of Emotion o nonverbal leakage unconscious spillover of emotions into nonverbal behavior gestures and posture o interpreting emails without tone and facial expression sometimes its hard to guess correctly posture slumped equals sad upright equals happy 0 Gestures illustrators highlight speech manipulators one body part does something to another biting nails twirl hair stressed proxemics study of personal space 0 personal distance is correlated positively with emotional distance farther less close feel closer intimidating Public distance 12 feet typically used for public speaking such as lecturing Social distance 412 feet typically used for conversations among strangers and casual acquaintances Personal distance 1 54 feet typically used for conversations among close friends or romantic partners Intimate distance 015 feet typically used for kissing hugging whispering sweet nothings and affectionate touching Lying and Lie detection 0 The Polygraph Test lie detector test rests on the assumption of the pinocchio response supposedly perfect physiological or behavioral indicator of lying o bodily reactions give away when lying responses to following three types of questions o relevant questions did you do it bearing on the crime o Irrelevant questions not bearing crime is your name o control questions reflecting probable lies have you ever been tempted to steal anything from a store prone to false positives innocent labeled as guilty and false negatives guilty labeled as innocent is an arousal detector NOT a lie detector looking at voices voice stress analysis 0 guiltv knowledge test GKT alternative to the polygraph test that relies on the premise that criminals harbor conceals knowledge about the crime that innocent people don t more false negatives criminals may not have been aware or have forgotten aspects of the crime scene 0 Measuring EEG brain waves brain fingerprinting 0 Truth Serum not necessarily true Integrity test questionnaire that presumably assesses workers tendency to steal or cheat History of stealing have you every stolen anything from your place of work Attitudes toward stealing do you think that workers who steal property from a store should always be fired Perceptions of others honesty do you believe that most people steal from their companies every now and then GNH gross national happiness Broaden and build theorv theory proposing that happiness predisposes us to think more openly Happiness selfhelp books Unhappy 0 Finding 1 Life events don t determine happiness 0 Finding 2 money usually doesn t make us happy less free time 0 Finding 3 The elderly are typically happier than younger people are 0 Positivity effect tendency for people to remember more positive than negative information with age 0 Finding 4 People on the West Coast are no happier than anyone else Happy 0 Marriage friendships college religion political affiliation exercise gratitude giving flow completely immersed in what we are doing Affective forecasting ability to predict our own and others happiness 0 Were typically poor at this Durabilitv bias belief that both our good and bad moods will last longer than they goo Hedonic treadmill tendency for our moods to adapt to external circumstance 0 Winning the lottery gt goes back to baseline after accident gt goes back to baseline after 0 Begin life and have genetically influences set point of happiness Selfesteem evaluation of our worth 0 Positively correlated with happiness and negatively correlated with loneliness 0 Positive illusions tendencies to perceive ourselves more favorably than others do Positive psvchologydiscipline that has sought to emphasize human strengths 0 Resilience coping life satisfaction love and happiness 0 Helping people enhance positive emotions Defensive pessimism strategy of anticipating failure and compensating for this expectation by mentally over preparing for negative outcomes 0 I expect the worst even though I will probably do okay encourages harder work Motivation psychological drive that propel us in a specific direction Drive reduction theorv theory proposing that certain drives like hunger thirst and sexual frustration motivate us to act in ways that minimize aversive states 0 Clark hull o Satisfaction of these hunger sex results in less tension and more pleasure theory 0 To ensure survival and reproduction o Homeostasis equilibrium 0 YerkesDodson Law inverted Ushaped relation between arousal on the one hand and mod and performance on the other 0 There s an optimal point of arousal in middle of curve it below we experience low motivation and don t perform well 0 When underaroused we experience stimulus hunger a drive for stimulation 0 Approach predisposition toward certain stimuli food 0 Avoidance disposition away from certain stimuli like rude people Incentive theories theories proposing that we re often motivated by positive goals finishing first etc o Intrinsic motivation internal goals 0 Extrinsic motivation external goals 0 Contrast effect once we receive reinforcement for performing a behavior we anticipate that reinforcement again reinforce withdrawn less likely to perform the behavior 0 Primary needs biological necessities secondary needs psychological desires o Hierarchv of needs model developed by Abraham Maslow proposing that we must satisfy physiological needs and needs for safety and security before progressing to more complex needs 0 Hypothalamus is a feeding center Glucostatic theorv theory that when our blood glucose levels drop hunger creates a drive to eat to restore the proper level of glucose low level gt drive gt we eat gt normal levels 0 Leptin hormone that signals the hypothalamus and brain stem to reduce appetite and increase the amount of energy used 0 Lacking of this gene leads to obesity 0 Set point value that establishes a range of body and muscle mass we tend to maintain o Genetics gene mutation in which never seem to feel full InternalExternal theorv theory holding that obese people are motivated to eat more by external cues than internal cues portion size taste smell appearance of food vs growling stomach or feeling of fullness Bulimia Nervosa eating disorder associated with a pattern of bingeing and purging in an effort to lose or maintain weight 0 Most common eating disorder 0 Triggered by genetic factors and external such as ideal body image and sociocultural expectations Anorexia nervosa eating disorder associated with excessive weight loss and the irrational perception that one is overweight Sexual Motivation 0 In our genes but also influenced by social and cultural factors 0 Levels of neurotransmitter serotonin o The basic sexual arousal cycle was same for men and women four stages 0 Excitement phase phase in human sexual response in which people experience sexual pleasure and notice physiological changes associated with it penile erection vagina swelling lubrication Plateau phase phase in human sexual response in which sexual tension builds ggasm climax phase phase in human sexual response marked by involuntary rhythmic contractions in the muscles of genitals in both men and women men ejaculate 0 Resolution phase phase in human sexual response following orgasm in which people report relaxation and a sense of wellbeing Sexual activity decreases with age but satisfaction doesn t Differs with culture Same versus opposite sex partners more males are gay than females can be changed Genetic and environmental influences Being a feminine boy or masculine girl Exposure to testosterone in the womb An older sibling Brain differences cluster of neurons in hypothalamus half the size in gay versus heterosexual men 0000 Attraction Proximity physical nearness a predictor of attraction 0 Those that you work with went to the same school etc Similarity extent to which we have things in common with others a prediction of attraction 0 Like the same activities have the same taste in clothes etc Reciprocity rule of give and take a predictor of attraction 0 Equity of the relationship Physical attraction correlation with popularity 0 Men like younger women 0 Women look at the weight of men prefer to be fit broad shoulders 0 Hip to waist ratio waist 70 as large as hips what men like in women women prefer men with higher wait to hip ratio Social Role Theory men make the money and are bigger and stronger women are the wives and take care of house and children The average symmetrical in face no obvious gene mutations no disease or other abnormalities Passionate love love marked by powerful even overwhelming longing for one s partner Happiness when with our desire One night stands Although long term is possible Companionate love love marked by a sense of deep friendship and fondness for one s partner Progress over time form passionate to companionate overriding emotion Triangular theory of love Sternberg Hate 1 Intimacy I feel close 2 Passion I m crazy for this person 3 Commitment I want to stay L Negation of intimacy would never want to get close Passion despise these people 3 Commitment determines to stop these people N
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