Chapter 9 Reading Notes
Chapter 9 Reading Notes PSYC2012
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Lowe on Sunday April 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC2012 at George Washington University taught by Dr. Duval in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 203 views.
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Date Created: 04/19/15
Monday April 13 2015 Social Psychology Reading Notes Chapter 9 Group Processes Influence in Social Groups Group three or more people who interact and are interdependent in the sense that their needs and goals cause them to influence each other Two people usually considered a dyad You influence them and they influence you People join groups because they have a strong desire to socially be accepted Also have a need to feel distinctive from those who don t belong to the same group Help us define who we are Most groups have 36 members If it gets too large you can t interact with all the members Example a university is not a group because you can t interact and meet every single person who goes there Tend to be alike in age gender beliefs and opinions Two reasons for this 1 many groups tend to attract people who are already similar before they join 2 groups tend to operate in ways that encourage similarity in the members Social Norms are dictated by group and usually vary from one group to another Social Roles shared expectations in a group about how particular people are supposed to behave Social Norms specify how all group members should act Social Floes specify how a person with a certain position should act Example Sigma Sigma Sigma only parties with Delta Chi Social Norm The president of Sigma Sigma Sigma should not drink at parties with anyone Social Role Study Zimbardo s prison experiment accurately showed how people will take on social roles when put into a certain situationgroup In this experiment people Monday April 13 2015 actually completely overlooked the fact that the prison was fake and that they were not actually incarcerated These apply to gender in the form of gender roles which have been changing Vary from country to country In the US the role of women has been changing dramatically from home life to the workplace to education Group Cohesiveness qualities of a group that bin members together and promote liking between members The more cohesive a group is the more likely it is that the members will remain in the group take part in group activities and recruit new members to the group Individual behavior in a group setting Behavior is influence positively in the presence of others as long as the task is relatively simple and welllearned Simple vs Difficult tasks Performance decreases if others are present during a difficult task Social Facilitation tendency for people to do better on simple tasks and worse on complex tasks when they are in the presence of others and their individual performance can be evaluated Presence of others gt arousal WHY 3 Explanations 1 Makes us more alert vigilant causing mild arousal explains why this happens in humans AND animals 2 Evaluation Apprehension humans are concerned about how other people are evaluating them causing mild arousal explains why this happens in humans 3 Other people can be distracting so we need to be alert when others are around any source of distraction will put us in a state of conflict because it is difficult to pay attention to two things at the same time causing mild arousal Monday April 13 2015 Social Loafing tendency for people to relax when they are in the presence of others and their individual performance cannot be evaluated such that they do worse on simple tasks but better on complex tasks Opposite of Social Facilitation lf going into a group allows you to blend in we become relaxed making us not try our hardest or just try less Men are more likely to do this Western cultures are more likely to do this Deindividuation loosening of normal constraints on behavior when people can t be identified such as when they are in a crowd When in a crowd people will be more willing to do things they would never do if they were alone Makes people feel less accountable for their actions Increases obedience to group norms Can be in a positive if everyone is dancing at the party so you will too or negative way people were lynching in the 60s so you will too Cyberspace can serve as deindividuation because it is anonymous Groups can actually make worse decisions than individuals in certain situations Process Loss any aspect of group interaction that inhibits good problem solving Happens when one person tries to convince the others that they are right but no one listens causing the group to make the wrong decision Sometimes the most competent member won t speak out think of normative social influence Failure to share unique information Groups tend to fixate on what they all know versus knowledge the individuals have that the other members do not Obviously including ALL information in your decision making process would result in the best decision Monday April 13 2015 Transactive Memory combined memory of two people that is more efficient than the memory of either individual Allows for members to be responsible for certain information ultimately leaving out the potential to not discuss unique information Groupthink kind of thinking in which maintaining group cohesiveness and solidarity is more important than considering the facts in a realistic manner Most likely to occur when certain preconditions are met when the group is highly cohesive isolated from contrary opinions and ruled by a directive leader who makes his or her own wishes known When this happens group feels that it is invulnerable and can do no wrong people don t voice contrary views Avoiding groupthink 1 remain impartial leader shouldn t take directive role 2 seek outside opinions invite outside opinions from nongroup members 3 create subgroups divide group into subgroups that meet separately and then meet together to discuss 4 seek anonymous opinions secret ballots ask members to write down the opinion anonymously Group polarization going to extremes lnitial research Risky Shift Groups make riskier decisions than individuals do Recent research These shifts are not the full story Groups make decisions that are more extreme in the same direction as the individual s initial predispositions If people are originally inclined to be conservative groups tend to make even more conservative decisions than individuals Group Polarization tendency for groups to make decisions that are more extreme than the initial inclinations of its members Monday April 13 2015 Occurs for 2 main reasons 1 all individuals bring to the group a set of arguments some of which others have not considered This means that those who have the same opinion are gaining more reasons as to why their opinion is right strengthening their opinion 2 when people discuss an issue in a group they first check how others feel and then usually will take a stance similar to the others but a little more extreme Leadership in groups Great Person Theory idea that certain key personality traits make a person a good leader regardless of the situation Research shows a weak link between personality and leadership Leadership styles Transactional Leaders leaders who set clear shortterm goals and reward people who meet them Do well making sure the needs of the org are met and that things run smoothly Transformational Leaders leaders who inspire followers to focus on common longterm goals Think outside the box identify important longterm goals and inspire followers to exert themselves to meet goals Effective leaders adopt BOTH of these styles of leadership Contingency Theory of Leadership idea that leadership effectiveness depends on both how taskoriented or relationshiporiented the leader is and on the amount of control and influence the leader has over the group Basically one needs to consider the situation of the leader to help determine whether or not they will succeed TaskOriented Leader leader who is concerned more with getting the job done than with workers feelings and relationships Do well in highcontrol work situations when the leader has excellent interpersonal relationships with subordinates his or her position in the company Monday April 13 2015 is clearly perceived as powerful and the work needing to be done by the group is structured and well defined Do well in lowcontrol work situations when the leader has poor relationships with subordinates and the work needing to be done is not clearly defined RelationshipOriented Leader leader who is concerned more with workers feelings and relationships Do well in moderatecontrol work situations Wheels are turning family smoothly but some attention is needed to the squeakiness caused by poor relationships and hurt feelings Leader who can sooth these issues will be most successful Gender and Leadership Women have lower percentages of leadership positions It is hard for women to gain leadership positions because many people believe that good leaders have agent traits assertive controlling dominant independent self con denD Women are considered to have communal traits concerned with the welfare of others warm helpful kind affectionate Women are more likely to be in high risk situations in which it is hard to succeed and so it seems they are less capable HOWEVER this prejudice is decreasing over time Culture and Leadership Different cultures valued different traits in leaders Universal agreement about the value of two leadership qualities charisma and being teamoriented Social Dilemma conflict in which the most beneficial action for an individual will if chosen by most people have harmful effects on everyone Lack of trust from people of others results in a solution that harms both individuals If people are interacting with a close friend they are more likely to adopt a cooperative strategy Monday April 13 2015 TitforTat Strategy means of encouraging cooperation by at first acting cooperatively but then always responding the way your opponent did cooperatively or competitively on the previous trial This is a way to increase cooperation Usually successful in getting the other person to respond with cooperative trusting response Using threats to resolve conflict Threats are not an effective means of reducing conflict Effects of communication Making people communicate does not solve conflict often it has no effect Does not foster trust which is the real reason behind conflict Only helpful if trust is fostered through it Negotiation form of communication between opposing sides in a conflict in which offers and counteroffers are made and a solution occurs only when both parties agree One limit to successful negotiation is that people often assume that they are locked in a conflict in which only one party can come out ahead don t realize that a solution favorable to both is possible Integrative Solution solution to a conflict whereby the parties make tradeoffs on issues according to their different interests each side conceded the most on issues that are unimportant to it but important to the other side Not so easy to do Important to keep in mind that integrative solutions are often available
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