Juvenile Justice System
Juvenile Justice System CJ 100
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erica Kugler on Monday April 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CJ 100 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Douglas Klutz in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 200 views. For similar materials see Intro to Criminal Justice in Criminal Justice at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 04/20/15
Juvenile Justice System 0 Most juvenile crimes are committed by young men 0 Only 29 of arrestees that are younger than 18 years old are female 0 Juvenile violentcrime rate rose from 19881994 0 Reasons for rise in crime rate I Environmental factors gt drug use mainly crack cocaine I Deteriorating social and economic conditions 0 Recession of 87 bad economic times 0 During hard times people are stressed over money and may turn to crime in order to obtain things they can t afford 0 Since 1994 the juvenile violentcrime rate has dropped by half 0 At its lowest level since 1985 0 Reasons for drop in crime rate I Change in age demographics 0 Age cohort for the majority of criminal offenders is 1624 years old 0 By 94 postbaby boom era was in full swing so less 1624 year olds smaller cohort crime rate will be less because there are less potential offenders Important Terms 0 Juvenile Delinquency juvenile s commission of an act that is criminal in the adult world 0 Ex juvenile commits robbery theft etc gt thatjuvenile is now a juv Delinquent 0 Status Offense offenses that are not illegal if committed by adults but are considered illegal if committed byjuveniles 0 Ex Skipping school 0 Neglect reception of inadequate care by a child due to some actioninaction of the parents 0 Dependency child who has no parentguardian or whose parents can t provide proper care Juvenile Rights Period 19601980 0 Period was marked by 2 key changes 0 Limiting of the power held by juvenile justice officials 0 Taking status offenders out of correctional institutions I Prevent juveniles from learning criminal behavior of others 0 2 important Supreme Court cases In re Gault In re Winship o In re Gault 67 0 Gave juveniles many of the same due process rights that adults possess I Due process rights include right to legal counsel notice of charges etc o In re Winship 70 o Burden of proof standard of guilty beyond a reasonable doubt can be applied to juvenile delinquency proceedings I Prior to this case the burden of proof standard of preponderance of evidence was used in both civil and criminal juvenile cases quotKids Are Different 2005present o Roper v Simmons 05 o If a person is under 18 years of age when he or she commits a felony crime then capital punishment ie death penalty cannot be an option for punishment I Death penalty cannot be imposed on juvenile offenders who committed their offense before their 18th birthday 0 This case marked the beginning of the quotKids Are Different movement 0 The decision of this case shows that the court recognized the developmental differences in teens vs adults I Developmental differences maturity impulsiveness etc I Why consider development differences Because the mental capacity and decisionmaking functions of a childteen is less developed than an adult s This lack of development could result in rash or hotheaded actions that result in a crIme
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