Topic 12 Family Systems.pdf
Topic 12 Family Systems.pdf PSY311
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Holly Houser on Tuesday April 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY311 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Winters in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 183 views. For similar materials see Emotion in Psychlogy at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 04/21/15
Topic 12 Neurobiological amp Behavioral Factors Involved in the Regulation of Interpersonal Interactions and Bonding Exam 4 What is the Caregiving System and why is it important to interpersonal relationships The Caregiving System is a behavioral program in the brain which motivates parents to nurture and protect their offspring particularly when they are young and helpless It is found throughout the mammalian class of animals Its activation is thought to facilitate bonding between mother and infant Even though it likely evolved for purposes of the nurturing of the infant by her mother it is thought to be extremely important in interpersonal bonding in adults Which adult emotions are associated with the Caregiving System 0 Sympathy which is defined as concerned attention toward someone who is suffering o Compassion often functions in a way similar to sympathy emphasizing that the recipient is in distress o Nuturant Love is defined as an emotion elicited by cues of vulnerability which motivates caregiving intended to enhance another person s wellbeing In all three emotions the individual is feeling sad on another person s behalf All three emotions involve helping another person What are oxytocin s known physiological functions It stimulates the uterus to contract when the mother is giving birth It also stimulates the mammary glands to produce and release milk and the brain uses it as a neurotransmitter to facilitate maternal behaviors Oxytocin is Important to Both Falling in Love amp to Maintaining Long Term Relationship Oxytocin is released during the period when people are falling in love Feldman and colleagues report that the increase in oxytocin release during this period was the highest level they had ever observed It was twice the level they usually see with pregnant women Oxytocin activity was also found to be correlated with the longevity of a relationship Couples with the highest levels of oxytocin were the ones still together six months later These couples were found to be more attuned to each other than the low oxytocin couples when asked to talk about a shared positive experience The high oxytocin couples finished each other39s sentences laughed together and touched each other more often Genetic Studies Provide Evidence that Oxytocin Plays an Important Role in Interpersonal Relationships amp Interspecies Relationships In married couples men with more vasopressin receptors were found to be closer relationally with their wives and less likely to contemplate divorce Genetic studies provide evidence that the way a dog relates socially to a human is in uenced by the oxytocin gene The presence of the A allele as opposed to the G allele was associated with greater friendliness toward humans Early experience is important too Babies raised in orphanages produce lower levels of oxytocin than babies raised by their biological parents This leads to the hypothesis that oxytocin receptor expression may be dependent on early social experiences Other Characteristics of the Social Attachment System SAS SAS refers to networks of neurons in the limbic system that are important to the formation of attachments and social bonds SAS is activated by separation from loved ones Animals produce distress calls when neural activity in SAS is high humans often cry when activity in SAS is high The emotion linked to SAS is separation anxiety See next slide for definition Activity in SAS is decreased by endogenous opiates Endogenous opiates are released when separated individuals who are bonded reunite SAS amp Separation Anxiety Separation or being alone leads to an increase in SAS activity The high level of activity is associated with emotional distress separation anxiety Once an appraisal is made it leads to an activation of SAS and the emotional distress you experience Decreasing Activity in SAS Reuniting with loved ones leads to the relief of separation anxiety The endogenous opiates see next slide decrease the activity in SAS and increase activity in areas of the brain associated with obtaining social rewards such as the Behavioral Activation System BAS Function of Endogenous Opiates Endogenous opiates enkephalins and endorphins are the brain s own pain killers They are secreted when pain levels are extremely high Narcotic analgesics morphine codeine heroin synthetic pain killers eg Percoset Darvon relieve pain by mimicking the action of endogenous opiates Endogenous opiates are also released when an individual receives a reward particularly a social reward Examples are play mutual grooming in animals and sexual behaviors Endogenous opiates decrease the activity in SAS and thus relieve the distress separation anxiety from social separation and isolation Endogenous Opiates amp Prosocial Behaviors Administration of opiates in animals leads to a decrease in prosocial behaviors tail wagging in dogs mutual grooming in primates time spent alone the desire to be touched because they decrease activity in SAS and thus social motivation Administration of opiate antagonists eg naltrexone increase social motivation Individuals who abuse narcotic analgesics heroin synthetic pain killers live in environments characterized by social isolation and alienation or have a difficult time bonding with others The drug decreases the activity in SAS and thus decreases loneliness Anti loneliness drug Reason why heroin addicts who live in isolation don t have a problem with living alone Personality Characteristics Associated with SAS Individuals with high SAS sensitivity to separation are highly motivated to bond with others High SAS individuals are gregarious friendly and have a strong desire for social companionship They feel uncomfortable when alone for an extended period of time They are highly motivated to form attachments with others and are more likely to experience separation anxiety Individuals with low SAS sensitivity to separation are more comfortable being alone than their high SAS counterparts Low SAS individuals spend a lot of time alone because of a diminished motivation to form social bonds and attachments They appear to be aloof and are often times loners Low SAS people have diminished motivation to bond Linear Thinking Linear thinking prevents con ict resolution When an individual uses linear thinking to resolve a con ict she tries to determine who is right and who is wrong Typically she believes that her significantother is wrong and that the con ict will be resolved if her significantother can be persuaded of the wrongness of her point of view If you have 2 very close people amp they have a con ict if they re using linear thinking they won t resolve it amp will feel worse afterwards Usually default way people try to resolve con icts Family Systems Dos amp Don ts of Negotiating 1 When there is an argument don39t focus on who started it This is linear thinking Do focus on the contribution you are making to the circular dance because that is the only thing you have control over The Law of Control For example are you trying to attribute blame or trying to determine who started an argument Are you being aggressive instead of assertive Don39t try to change the other person39s behavior or feelings For example Don39t say Don39t feel that way or you shouldn39t feel that wayquot That is validate his emotions don39t invalidate them by saying the emotion he is experiencing is wrong No emotion is right or wrong Deselfing amp Emotional Divorce Deselfing or emotional divorce occurs when the IWe issue is not resolved Deselfing results when there is too much We in the IWe issue Deselfing is sacrificing personal autonomy being your own person for the sake of harmony in the relationship Emotional divorce occurs when there is too much I in the IWe issue There is too much concern for the goals needs and wellbeing of self and too little concern for the goals needs and wellbeing of the partner Anxiety is often experienced when rules are changed Explain If you start changing rules about the relationship you automatically think the person doesn t love you anymore which creates anxiety amp fear of rejection Characteristics of Enmeshed Relationships Characteristics 1 People who don39t emphasize the quotIquot enough in the I We issue wind up spending too much energy trying to quotbe forquot the other person in that they feel responsible for that person39s happiness and emotional wellbeing If we are enmeshed we hold our significant other responsible for our well being we try to quotmakequot him happy and expect him to try to quotmakequot us happy Each individual tries to control the other individual too much in that she tries to make her significant other think differently behave differently or feel differently Enmeshed individuals believe that they know what is best for their significantother These individuals try to change the relationship by changing the other person instead of himself Enmeshed individuals cannot be happy unless they feel that they re meeting the needs of their partner all of the time An enmeshed individual feels guilty when she wants something different than her partner and thinks that she is not close to her partner because she wants something different from him An enmeshed individual needs to be constantly involved in all aspects of his partner s life Quote from an enmeshed individual a If we are not intertwined emotionally we39re nothing Apart from each other we are nothingquot iClicker Questions 1 Which is false about talking to a friend about your anger a Usually reduces your anger 2 Which is a social vitaminquot a Being with friends amp family when emotionally distressed 3 Anger can be intensified by others because they are trying to be on your side This is referred to as a Anger rehearsal 4 Family systems theory the term refers to accepting another a Active listening 5 According to family systems theory you should not say a Don t feel that way b You shouldn t feel that way c lust study more amp you won t keep getting poor grades 6 According to family systems theory which would be helpful to a friend in emotional distress a Your goal is to be a facilitator in that you should help your friend solve his problem not solve it for him 7 What s the most important thing to do to help a friend who is experiencing emotional distress a Make sure you communicate empathy b Make sure you solve her problem 8 What s a benefit of not forgiving a The person gets attention amp sympathy because they were victimized b Righteous anger can be rewarding amp make someone feel superior c Righteous angers is rewarding enough for some people that it becomes a substitute for happiness 9 What happens when someone forgives He eliminates a Resentment toward the person b Personal indignation c Anger toward the person d The motivation for retaliation amp revenge 10 It helps you make peace with your pastquot There is a tremendous freedom in letting goquot If you don t you become a prisoner of the pastquot What topic was being discussed a Forgiveness 11 Execution parties What topic was being discussed a Justice by retaliation 12 Since WW2 the income of Americans has tripled The level of happiness a Has not changed significantly 13 Which is false b People making 50 mill each year are about 10 times happier than people making 50000 each year 14 Happiness is defined as a sense of contentment that comes from doing your duty toward your family amp community c Asian countries 15 Which agrees with Lyken s Set Point Theory d Positive amp negative life experiences change an individual s subject sense of wellbeing but the change is temporary e Good things don t last f This too will pass 16 Which is true g A reward is appraised as less rewarding after experiencing it a number of times h The magnitude of an emotional response diminished after repeatedly experiencing the emotion i Even though a person may win more than 150 million dollars the increased happiness that results from winning the lottery is only temporary 17 Most imp Ife factor in determining the appraised value of a positive experience j Recent experiences with similar rewards 18 Picture on phone k All the above 19 Study of identical amp fraternal twins 1 50 percent of happiness is genetics 20 Most salient characteristic shared by top 10 of individuals with most happiness amp fewest signs of depression m Their strong ties to family amp commitment to them 2 1 The joy is in the journey not reaching the destination Which is most relevant n Flow 22 A man from Indi shown in Happy a earned a living by pulling a rickshaw with passengers Which is true a He was as happy as the average American 23 Karoshi is a disease frequently found in Japanese Which is true b It results from excessive work without proper rest amp sleep c It occurs primarily in men d People die from the diseases 24 Which is associated with Caregiving system e Sympathy f Compassion g Nuturant love 25 What s false of oxytocin h It s a neurotransmitter in an emotional system in the brain that produces a desire to be near a person amp emotional distress when separated from that person SAS Social attachment system 26 What s false of oxytocin i Oxytocin is neurotransmitter that s part of a system that provides the motivational impetus to form attachments 27 Which is most imp To understanding why individuals in the experimental group improved their ability to resolve con ict j Couples in the experimental group had received an oxytocin nasal spray prior to being observed 28 Increase in oxytocin release increases k During the time people fall I love 29 Which is false 1 Giving an oxytocin nasal spray to football player before hey play another team will make him less aggressive toward his opponent 30 The activation of oxytocin receptors in this regions of the brain decreases fear amp anxiety m Amygdala 31 Which is false a Oxytocin is released when an individual is separated from a loved one 32 Which is false b Oxytocin levels increase when someone experiences separation anxiety c Oxytocin can increase defensive aggression which is aggression oriented towards neutralizing a threatening outgroup d Endogenous opiates are released when separated individuals reunite 33 Which is false e Activation of BIS leads to the secretion of oxytocin by the pituitary gland 34 Administration of opiates in animals leads to a decrease in prosocial behaviors because the opiates f Decrease activity in SAS amp thus social motivation 35 Which is false g Separation or being alone leads to an increase in oxytocin release by the Caregiving System 36 When an individual uses to resolve a con ict he tries to determine who is right amp who s wrong Typically he believes that his Sigother is wrong amp that the con ict will be resolved if his Sigother can be persuaded of the Wrongness of their point h Linear thinking 37 Which is true of the circular dance i It s an example of linear thinking j Each person provokes the other k It increases the level of anger 38 Father nags son amp son is mad about being nagged What topic was being discussed 1 Circular dances 39 According to the Law of Control m You only have control over your own behavior 40 It s important to give up the fantasy that you can change or control another s thoughts feelings amp behaviors Which of the following is most relevant to this assertion n Law of Control 41 I understand that you are concerned about my wellbeing amp that s why you want me to do what you think is best for mequot a Empathic statement 42 I feel that nagging is disrespectful I do respect your judgmentquot b Assertive claiming 43 What s true of the nagging father amp procrastinating son c The father s nagging is an example of verbal aggression d The son s increase in procrastination is an ex 0f passive aggression e Both the father amp son contributed to the circular dance 44 results when there s too much We in the IWe issue This refers to sacrificing personal autonomy for the sake of harmony in the relationship f Deselfing 45 John is when he tries to convince loan of the rewards of playing poker amp suggests it would be goof for her to spend time with her friends g Showing misdirected emotional energy 46 The term refers to attempts to change the feelings thoughts or behaviors or you partner Try to get your partner to see things your way h Misdirected emotional energy 47 You can be certain that will occur when an individual wants a rule change that is there will be attempts to prevent changes in the rules Ex would be threats appeals to guilt or shame insults amp accusations i Countermoves 48 We always d things together don t you love me anymore You are selfish for wanting to spend time with your friends without me What am I supposed to do on Wednesday nightquot i Countermoves 49 In the poker examplequot John states I understand how you feel You are concerned that my feelings may have changed about youquot This is an example of k Empathetic statement 50 How was Rich sustaining the circle dance that emerged Couple late for social functions a By nagging 51 The case of the late couplequot Rich asks himself How important is it to me to arrive on time amp how important is it for Maria to have the freedom to not be rushedquot What s he doing b Showing cognitive clarification 52 It is very imp to me to arrive on time for social events I feel embarrassed when we arrive latequot Rich s statements are an example of c Assertive claiming 53 Maria says You are selfish amp selfcentered What is wrong with you Couples should arrive together Don t you care about my feelingsquot Maria s statements are examples of d Countermoves 54 Rich asks how imp is it to me to arrive on timequot Maria asks How imp is arriving on time to Rich amp how imp is it to me to not be rushed They are engagedin e Cognitive clarification 55 Sandra states He s a workaholic He neglects the kids amp me He s a stranger to his own familyquot Larry states Sandra is overreactive She s overemotionalquot Their statements are examples of f The blame game 56 Sandra amp Larry seek marriage counseling because they are fighting a lot amp generally unhappy with their marriage What s true g Sandra shows overfunctioning in that she s doing the feeling for him h Sandra tried to get him to experience the same feelings she did when someone at work unfairly received credit for his work i Sandra is NOT validating his feeling when she criticized him for not becoming angry when someone at work unfairly took credit for his work 57 Same as above j In terms of emotions she overfunctions amp he underfunctions k They had a narcissistic dependent relationship 1 When they went to a marriage counselor neither Larry nor Sandra had any idea of how to resolve a con ict 58 Ioan stated It may be 99 my problem Other women in my shoes might not be upset about the situation I know you are angry because we had agreed to have friends of the opposite sex amp I am not complying I understand how you feelquot This is an example of m An empathic statement 59 Ioan states I cannot continue to live with you if you continue the relationship with your research assistantquot This is an example of n A bottom line statement 60 What s true of the case of brothers George amp Bill 0 They have an enmeshed relationship p There was too much We in regards to the I We issue q Bill the older brother tried to rescue his younger brother from George s girlfriend 61 In order for George amp Bill s relationship to improve it s imp that both brothers need to r Embrace the principle of multiple realities