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by: Luna Falk

Chapter1outline.pdf 170

Marketplace > University of Arizona > 170 > Chapter1outline pdf
Luna Falk
GPA 3.8
Astronomy: The Physical Universe

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Astronomy: The Physical Universe
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Luna Falk on Wednesday April 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 170 at University of Arizona taught by Bieging in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 52 views.


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Date Created: 04/22/15
Chapter 1 outline A The visible sky a b Patterns in motions i Stars ii Suns iii Moons iv Planets Irregular motions i Comets ii Meteors B Visible observations a b C Stars a b Constellations Groupings based on myths and continued as fixed shapes over human lifetimes 88 official constellations Used as reference points i Names vary from old Latin to more modern European names ii Secondary names diverting from different cultures like native Americans who were not under European in uence Individual stars are named i Relating to the constellation that they are in Change of season through constellations i Orion in winter and spring ii Cygnus the swan in summer and fall 1 Implication sun moves with respect to stars over a year Motions i Appear to move west to east ii Paths are portions of circles 1 Center of circle is north celestial pole iii Earths rotation causes sun moon and stars to appear to move Circumpolar i Cp stars seem to move counterclockwise around stationary north star ii Visible all year because they never rise or set D Charting the sky a Celestial sphere imaginary sphere outside of earth with stars drawn on i Including grid lines for latitude and longitude N S celestial poles directly above earths poles Celestial equator circle around earths equator half way between poles Declination angular distance from celestial equator towards pole Right ascension lines from NCP to SCP perpendicular to celestial equator i ii i ii iii E The sun gangs ii F Moon Measured in units of time from earths rotation 0 where elliptic crossed equator f Ranking stars measured in brightness invented by Hipparchus 1 first magnitudequot for brightest 2 6 divisions for visible stars og based on response of human eye iv observed property v very bright stars can have a magnitude of O or less Special dates Daily motion defines our lifeunless you re an insomniac Rises in east crosses meridian at high noon sets in the west Pattern varies slightly day to day Path of sun against fixed stars is ecliptic Constellations near the suns path form the zodiac 1 1 Solstice winter and summer rising and setting stop shifting for one day 2 Equinox spring and fall a Season Rises due east sets due west 1 When sun is higher in sky there is more direct sunlight resulting in summer vice versa is summer 2 Reasons a b P qqrhrngo a 295 day cycle b Phases due to changing sun re ection off moons surface relative to us c Names of phases 1 ii iii iv v vi vii viii New moon Earths axis is tilted N S pole tipped alternately towards away from sun Summer poles dip toward sun Winter poles tipped away NOT CAUSED by changing distance to sun Earths rotation on axis determines length of day Orbit around sun determines length of a year Tilt of rotational axis determines season Waxing crescent First quarter Waxing gibbous Full moon Waning gibbous Third quarter Waning crescent d Not caused by shadow of earth falling on moon G Eclipses a Lunar i Moon moves through earths shadow ii Happens slowly and is easy to predict b Sun i Solar eclipse shadow of moon falls on earth ii Total eclipse shadow sweeps earth rapidly hard to predict H Planets a Greek wanderer b 5 visible to unaided eye mercury Venus mars Iupiter Saturn c vary in brightness d don t twinkle e motion i planets appear to move backwards in retrograde motion 1 brightest during retrograde motion ii propade 1 west to east iii retrograde 1 east to west


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