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Conflict Part I and II

by: Amaris Mae

Conflict Part I and II IAFF 2093

Amaris Mae
GPA 3.75
Africa: Problems and Promise

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These the lecture notes on conflict in Africa. Lecture notes are in black, text notes are in blue. This includes part I and II of the series on conflict
Africa: Problems and Promise
Class Notes
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amaris Mae on Thursday April 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to IAFF 2093 at George Washington University taught by Shinn in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 99 views. For similar materials see Africa: Problems and Promise in International Affairs at George Washington University.


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Date Created: 04/23/15
News 492015 Opposition leaders in Kenya demanded they take all troops out of Somalia Somalia put a bounty on the top 11 commanders of the alShabab Kenyan school massacre still in the news Continuing debate on whether the attackers were signaling out Christians for killings Con ict in Africa Importance of Having a Better Understanding of why Con ict takes place States that were previously stuck in civil strife have emerge with peace Ex Randa Cote de lvo ir Angola Liberia Sierra Leone Mozambique Countries once considered basket cases may not be considered so permanently 1990s there was a tendency for countries to intervene directly in the internal affairs of neighbors Dissipated lately Signi cant number of countries engaged in war and con ict in the 19905 Overall improvement Following the Cold War Less military intervention by the western power And the Russians and Chinese Lack of democracy denial of human rights disregard of people39s sovereignty lack of empowerment and accountability bad governance Relatively few interstate con icts until the 19905 Exceptions between Ghana and Togo Mali and Burkina Faso More interstate con icts since the 1990s Lots of con ict between Sudan and South Sudan DRC as many other nations intervened OAU created in 1963 Have actually helped reduced the occurrence of interstate con icts Borders were to remain static OAU discouraged engagement in internal affairs of another country Tribalism While it plays a role it overlooks the lack of clarity in what makes up a tribal group Is it based on language Culture Religion Ethnic identity is a matter of perception Rather than any characteristics Labeling a con ict as a tribal war can lead to failing policies And can increase violence Ethnicity does play a signi cant role But tendency to overstate its importance Competition for Resources Lies at the center of many African resources Con ict can occur along class lines Or more commonly its pastoralists vs agriculturalist Or urban vs rural Resources oil water minerals diamonds play a role in Sierra Leone and Angola Economics don39t always play a factor GDP can go down and yet no con ict Con ict countries show the extreme in human deprecation Adult literacy rate is less than 50 in 12 of the countries Human poverty and lack of social inclusion is on the rise And as con ict continues it will be very dif cult to defeat poverty Con ict countries tend to have governments that disregard human rights Even when you bring con ict to an end the leadership never quite understand why the con ict begun l so con ict will start again What are some ways of getting a better understanding Include the opposition government in the communication process Use of think tanks Ethiopia has think tanks Peace Operations in Africa Today there are 8 UN peace keeping operation in Africa Account for 80 of UN peace keeping expenditures Most con icts are protracted and complex Often cross national borders Often in support of problematic peace agreement 5 That were often not signed by all the con icting parties And do not address all the issues that led to the con ict Many parties in the con ict that operate with militias And want the con ict to continue AU UN ECOWAS EU in Chad and US led coalition tried to help reestablish peace in Somalia Peace keeping missions made it hard to ensure the goals of each actors Poses challenges for the inoperability of doctrine ability and authority Everyone is coming from a different point of view Troops operate differently from other peacekeepers from civilians from government Issue of language differences Mandates are dif cult as well Peace keepers keep to some titles Have to gure out which group is capable and willing to do what Peace keeping operation is low in troops and often slow in building up what strength it does have 1 You almost never has any many troops as you need 2 It takes months oar year to get to the authorize level that the UN or AU has suggested is the magic number Most peace keepers in Africa are from African countries or South Asia Especially Bangladesh India and Pakistan Very few are from western countries today Why so few US peacekeepers attached to UN peace keeping measures Status of forces US doesn39t like to put troops under command of someone else US experience in Somalia is the main reason why there are no peacekeepers in Africa Number of police have gone up as more peacekeepers are assigned to Africa It is harder to nd police than soldiers Ambitious mandates Being asked to help build institutions of liberal democratic governments Electoral supervision Human rights monitoring In addition to providing relief and security But they receive very little resources And not a lot of training And confusing direction Which is the priority Serving the government or the people what if they con ict UN AU EU combine EU provides most of the funding AU authorizes UN sends troops US is the single largest provide for the budget for the peace keeping portion of the UN IN a study 77 coup defat 1958 2008 West Africa account for more than half of that There are also more countries Central Africa also has a large number of these coups Disproportionate to the states there South Africa has been generally free of coups Another study found a strong historical correlation between civil war in subSaharan Africa and a rise in temperature Famine Drought Lower crop yield Nonfarm labor activity declines with higher temperatures What are the Reasons for con ict Resource competition Ethnicity Poverty economic disparity Religion Instability corruption Human rights violations Who should be responsible for peace keeping in Africa Regional groups lack of funding is a problem The AU UN What role should the US play in African peace keeping making Increase funding to regional organizations Operationlogical support News 4142015 1 year since the kidnapping of 200 girls from Nigeria by Boko Haram Some news on this Someone saw a few Sudanese voting opened yesterday Some independent unknown candidates Running against President Bashir Running the country since 1989 South Africa attack on 5 Malawi Boat of migrants capsized off the coast of Libya Eritrea Somalia Syria 400 people may have drowned Schools reopen in Sierra Leon Having closed due to Ebola Only in certain areas Nigerians elections For state governors And state assembly 9 people were killed during those elections EgyptianAmerica Sentenced to life in prison for supporting the Muslim Brotherhood Just went on trial 14 died in Sinai Peninsula Multinational force of Chad Niger Nigeria and Cameroon have taken control of Boko Haram39s headquarters in Nigeria Ebola 28 people treated in the American created and expensive Ebola centers Islamic State has taken credit for an attack on the Korean and Moroccan embassies in Libya Con ict Part II Most rebel leaders in interstate war used economic incentives to motivate followers But not to the exclusion of ideological inclusionmotivation Economic agendas are not the only or necessarily the main tool for driving rebellion At the same time loot able resources almost always play some role in rebellion Rebels must live off the land Sometimes they become addicted to looting Ex Unite rebel movement in Angola addicting to diamond mining Want to loot because they are rebelling to get access to the spoils of the state But these aren39t guaranteed So they loot for immediate grati cation Some do not seek a democratic governmentchange in government So they don39t necessarily want the government out of power It is by their rebel activity that they stay relevant and important Some suggest that this is what AlShabab is doing today The wars in both Angola and SierraLeone Show where the rebel leaders had economic agenda Liberia also falls into this category However con icts in Burundi Rwanda and Somalia do not t the category of loot able resources Because they do not have many resources Even ideological commitments have an economic element Cases of mandatedcoercive involvement LRA in Uganda Child soldiers LURD in Liberia Child soldiers forcing young adults RUF in Sierra Leone AlShabab in Somalia Rebellions almost always use a complex mixture of political indoctrination physical coercion economic rewards and ethnic attachment to attract and hold followers Leaders of rebellions who face the constant risk of elimination from a strong state must build a cohesive ghting force Where the motivations of soldiers have been internalized Some rebels face weak states Libya weakest Somalia DRC When a rebel group faces a weak state it can take its time While it continues to enrich itself le looting Liberation of Zaire DRC Never engaged in a real ghts With former president Mobutu39s forces Just slowly went Looting as it went And the pushed mouth out of of ce End of Rebel movement that have come to sustainable governments Ivory Coast Sierra Leone Rwanda Liberia Burundi South Africa Mozambique Patterns to African Con ict Usually involve military hostility between rebel groups and governments Take the form of irregular warfare Result in overwhelming civilian injuries Yet modest deaths of those doing the ghting Exception Ethiopia and Eritrea High correlation between poverty and con ict Correlation rises when there is also poor governance Armed Con ict in Africa Not unusual for war economies to develop Where there are invested interests in instability y Ex warlords in Somalia until the early part of this century Occasionally con ict is linked to environmental crimes Ex export of charcoal AlShabab has 30 of the charcoal trade Ex jogging Weapons proliferation has fueled civil wars Sometimes other states supply arms to rebel groups across the bored Common in the horn of Africa Ex Ethiopia funds rebel groups in Eritrea Ex Eritrea funds rebel groups in Ethiopia Ethiopia used to supply the Sudanese Liberation Group Now the government of South Sudan Terrorism is a type of irregular warfare Piracy is pretty much over with in Somalia Golf of Guinea lose oil from theft Money is used to fuel rebel movements Ex Liberation of the Niger Delta Neutralized by GoodLuckJonathan Drug traf cking has become serous Cocaine smuggled through South America through West Africa to Europe Heroine smuggled through Asia to East Africa to Europe Greater use of these hard drugs in Africa Human smuggle in nag traf cking Nigeria Ghana Benin Morocco Kidnapping especially of children long standing problem Illegal shing Account for 1520 of all sh caught off the coast of Somalia Paused during piracy Endangered species collection can lead to con ict And some of the pro ts used can lead to con ictrebel groups Ivory mostly ends up in Asia China Vietnam and Thailand may take proportionally more of these materials All of these problems create a vicious cycle of insecurity Maritime crime interferes with sea communication The International Community is helping to train and equip their security forces Must be a greater emphasis on police reform Lots of the problems are related to corruption Water attacks Piracy Most attacks have happened off the coast of Nigeria Because of lack of infrastructure Why has piracy disappeared from Somalia Boats have better protection Restructured Armed forces on board Third Article 80 of arms in Africa are in the hands of civilians and not the military US arms embargoes have been ineffective on limiting the arrival of new equipment into con icts Libya actually an exporter of arms South Sudan DRC Children are capable of operating small arms Contribute to the issue of con ict Ex DRC EX CAR Ex Somalia Model of effectiveness at demobilization Ex Sierra Leone the most successful Lack of resources often prevent African countries from implement demobilization programs Water Lake Chad 50 the sized it used to be Due to decreased rainfall Irrigation Deserti cation May well be that one of the problems of Boko Haram is the diminished nature of Lake Chad Lake Turkana On Ethiopia39s border with Kenya Upstream development has hurt it Lake Victoria Over shing Receding shoreline Industrial pollution Especially vulnerable to climate change 80 year low of water levels in this past year River Nile basin Lower water amounts as well Less freshwater Peace Operations in Africa lessons Learned Since 2000 Over 50 peace operations To 18 countries Partnership peacekeeping Using multilateral and bilateral institutions Force vernation efforts should focus on deploying the capabilities needed to realize mission objective and not solely on numbers of peacekeepers Maintaining legitimacy is crucial International disagreements persist over the fundamental purpose of peace operations Especially in regards to the use of military force Organized valence has killed million and displaced million more Traumatized a generation of children and young adults Broken bonds of trust Authority structures in local communities are ruined The direct and indirect cost of con icts in Africa sink 2000 900 billion AlShabab Somalia Democratic Force for the Liberation of Rwanda M23 Rebels in the DRC Janjaweed in Darfur AlQaeda in the Islamic Maghreb Ansari al Dine in Mali Usled international withdrawal form peacekeeping in Africa fatter the quotblack Hawk Dawnquot episode in Mogadishu in October 1993 But some missions in the late 1995 the DRC Sierra Leone and the CAR Conducted by UN AU EU and the ECOWAS Since 2006 the UN has spent over 36 billion in the region And sent 70000 peacekeepers 11 operations Since 2003 the AU has helped increase the tempo of missions AU authorized 40 00 peacekeepers To Burin the Comoros Darfur Somalia central Africa and Mali Peacekeepers have not always Extinguished the ames of war Managed to protect the civilian victims Contorted illegal arm group Have been accused of incompetence corruption or sexually exploiting the people they were to protect Key Lessons 1 An effective political strategy is a prerequisite for success a Peace operations cannot be as substitute for political strategy or the peace process 2 Strategic coordination is crucial a Contemporary peace actions involve a variety of actors i Coordination will be political ii Need to ensure that relevant actors share a similar vison of the operation39s purpose iii The practical forces of many stagey coordination issues will be developing sensible division of labor in the complicated UNAUEUUS nexus 3 Ends and means must be in synch a Goals of the operation should be set out in clear cradle and exible mandates b Ex MONUC in the DRC was told to assist successive Congolese government and their security forces and protect villains when the former were often a major threat to the latter c Once mandated policy makes must present large vacancy vent ie discrepancies between the authorized force level and the actual numbers d Ex large fancy rates damaged performance in Umami39s rst year in Sudan 4 De ne and deliver 39robustquot operations a Brahimi Report clouded that once deployed peace operations must be based on a robust doctrine and force posture 5 Generate speci c mission capabilities not just numbers of personnel a Peace operations must achieve particular political effects on the ground such as to coerce spoilers protect displacement camps and supply toes demobilize armed factions and promote the rule of law 6 Legitimacy matters a Eroded when peace keepers are accused of war crimes i Corruption ii Sexual exploitation 7 Female peacekeepers enhance operations effectiveness a Rare i But presence is increasing b Has dance the operational effective of missions in several ways i Enhances gender quality ii Signi cantly enhances the situational awareness and acceptance of a force by local communities Policy Implications Greater clarity and wider consensus are required Comprehending African Con ict Adebayo Adedeji 1960s 1990s era of independence 80 violent changes of government in the country SubSaharan Arica has earned a reputation of being perpetually at war with itself There is a growing tendency for neighboring countries to intervene directly in their neighbor s internal con icts Ex Uganda Rwanda and Burundi assisted the Laurent Kabila forces to overthrew the Moure regime in the DRC in 1996 Direct it intervention has also become commonplace More in bilateral than multilateral form South Africa in Lesotho Senegal in Guinea Bissau The Economic community Monitoring Group is a unique example of intervention 0 n a multilateral basis OAU charter prohibits such intervention Helpless to enforce it 3 categories 1 Countries engaged in armed con ict or civil strife 2 Countries in several and prolonged political crises and turbulence 3 Countries enjoying a more or less stable political condition n Lots of interaction between countries During the Couse of the past 4 decades large numbers of countries in all three countries have undergone violent changes in government Nigeria lies at the top of the list 30 month long civil war 1 million killed maimed or displaced Sudan Uganda Ghana and Burundi and Benin Have all undergone brutal transitions 5 times Chad Burkina Faso and Sierra Leone Have all undergone brutal transitions 4 times Basket cases need not be permanent Con ict can only be mastered however if and when they are fully comprehended Good governance democracy and development will continue to elude the people of Africa Need to move away from the mere quotpeace makingquot platitude And into the realms of proactive empirical research Need to do wary with the notion that cessation no hesitation amounts t peace Cessation of hospitalization negotiated cease res peace agreements ant national elections are no more useful markers in the con ict resolution continuum There are common characteristics of a dived society Divided violent and con ictridden country or society justice which encompasses equity and fair play as the ethical national policies is conspicuous for its absence Ethnics and Tribalism are often put Foard as the main factors responsible for intra state con ict However this de nition is unclear Language can39t even be used as a guide to ethnics or tribal identity In the horn of Africa while the ethnic factor cannot be informed entirely is more often hand not exploited and manipulated by those who are bent on promoting con ict Elites in African society s particularly members other political class have shown no res rain in manipulating people and feeding the prejudice Degenerates in to people to people violence Also take note that the Hutu and Tutsi speak the same language share the same territory and follow the same tradition It was just deponent on which group came into power And even then it is dif cult to differentiate


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