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Geography 122

by: angel wen

Geography 122 GEO 122

angel wen

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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by angel wen on Thursday April 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEO 122 at University of British Columbia taught by in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 12 views.


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Date Created: 04/23/15
G122 Lecture 2 Three Key Words Modernisation Globalisation Human Geography Modernisation De nition An interlocking set of social economic political and cultural processes and relationships associated with the European view of a modern society This view was developing from the C 17 until by the mid C20 it was widely regarded as a global norm to which all states would advance Note a whole way of life b Eurocentric Other de nitions Modernity the historic era of the modern Modernism modern art and culture including dominant values 1 The basic package European Enlightenment of 18C reason over tradition improvement the goal belief in human progress achieved through science and technology secularism and separate spheres of the market government religion 2 In government from monarchy to eventual democracy peacefully or through revolution from cronyism to bureaucracy Expansion of democracy and citizenship rights including a people s right to selfdetermination leading to the nation state and 20C achievement of the welfare state 3 In economic organisation power of the market the 19C industrial revolution division of labour factory system mass production urbanisation Mass distribution amp creation of a mass market Regional amp international trade the latter aided by colonialism the expansion of Europe overseas 1930s Keynesian government interventions 1980s neeliberalism the market knows best 4 Modernisation as a Cold War strategy of the West Walt Rostow s 5 Stages of Economic Growth A NonCommunist Manifesto 1960 15 edition 5 Criticisms a Progress b Democracy c Rising standards of living 1 Dysfunctional societies e Abuse of nature Globalisation a The broad version The significant increase and organisation of ows of ideas goods capital people and power across national borders leading to greater global integration of economics politics and cultures 0 Effects of cheaper faster transport and IT 0 Transnational organisations amp ows 0 What role for the nation state 0 Scale sorting out globallocal relations b The narrower version The current phase of economic modernisation as market principles extend throughout the world aided by a neoliberal philosophy that urges the efficiency and benefits of competitive and largely unregulated markets Human Geography The disciplinary lens for the course There are four approaches and we will move between them Each will be illustrated in the lectures to follow a Societynature relationships b Spatial patterns map distributions and ows c The experience of place 1 Regional studies January 9 2015 Political geopolitics since 1945 De nition geopolitics studies the political and strategic signi cance of geography de ned as the location size resources and power of regions and na ons Interntional relations emphasizes geography in the foreign policy of states Halford Mackinder s heartland thesis First formulation1904 very in uential thesis built upon simple observations his ideas had tremendous longevity in uenced strategists specia relations pivot area or later know as heartland Eurasiapower base of landmen nava forcessesaman couldn t get there made landman impregnable outer crescentpower base of sea man inner crescentmeeting zone location of shatterbelts 2 global forcespower base of landman and seaman Key actors landman seaman Key geopolitical regions world island hearland outer crescent inner crescent including shatterbelts Key power relations Who rules eastern Europe commands the heartlandeastern europe is the only way to go into heartland Who rules the hearland commands the world island Who rules the world island commands the world World isandAfrica asia and europe The land man pushed outward and would come into the contact with seaman Blue zoneshatterbeltsplaces of con icts World war 2 German forces could not push into the heartlandsoviet union Same with napoleonadvanced across north European plaintremendous loss of armies Cold war consequences of the heartland thesis Containment of the soviet union within the heartland Survival of heartland thinking into the cold war for examplein Saul Cohen s geostragegic map of the world 1973 Critic did not recognize Europe coast as power in themselves containment of heartland became a major focus during the cold war seaman are mobile while the landman was more ponderous and in uences expanded outwards from secure base american and its allies wanted to push them back But there are clear limits to mackinder s geopolitics in the period after 1945 underempahsised the independent power of the intter crescent the coaslands of western eurpoe and east asia technoogy had changed and air power transformed the long held relatinos of landmen and seaman by adding air power as a third dimension Now across the north pole the us and ussr become neighbours in response the distant early warning line of defensive sites was built in Alaska and the Canadian north air power changed the geography so it is not always constant seversky s concept of global strategy map centred on north pole us and ussr appear much closer with air power it is possible to cross icy seas 1950 anxiety that ussr will y over the poles to us but Mackinder inspired thinking continued through the cold war among the us and its nato allies spatia containment of the warsaw pactUSSR and communist states of Eastern Europe a major policy Pushed back expansion in shatterbelts of EuropeBerlin Milddle East and East Asiakoeran war vietnam Afghanistan Fear of domino theory that if one nation fell there would be an in uence to other countries note the outward spatial expansion the landman s advance Pronouncements of US geostrategists kept the spirit of Mackinder alive In 1996 Mackinder s 1919 book Democratic ideals and realty republished by US national defense university quot the united states most basic national security interest would be endangered if a hostile stte or group states were to dominate the eurasian landmassthat area of the globe often referred to as a the world s heartlandquot Deployment of US and USSR armed forces 194682 Global prescence of us military deployment Soviet deployment is limited to heartland and around it State of Union addresses 194687 During years of cold warfocus of addresses on heartland Reaganfocused on USSRcalled it the the evil empirequot in the 19805 by him American interests are everywhere major area is around soviet union with few outliers such as cuba Spatial themes of us geopolitics in the cold war Global reach with sea and air power into all continents Special containment of the ussr 0 Deployment of military forces 0 Establishment of alliances in shatterbelts NATO CENTO SEATO BUT Superpower were not omnipotent during the cold war Embarrassing military reverses Vietnam Afghanistan Economically US no longer hegemonic and ussr economy failing Rise of japan and western Europe US balance of trade signi cantly declined while japan and Germany rises Weakening of the cold war hegemony led to the America rst policy of the 19805 and early 1990s Military build up to threaten competitors Pressuring allies vigorously seeking partners in developing world Cultural nationalism eg Bravado of free enterprise LA Olympics Trade agreements FTA NAFTA 20005 George bush s unilateralism war on terror all have made for very expensive foreign policy has US spent too much lots of debt 9 trillion in one year china is buying us debt and some other countries the growth of china is a new growth by 2017 china will exceed us s economy southeast asia shatterbelt becoming an economic area G122 Lecture 3 A Global Arena Cold War Geopolitics amp After Geopolitics the international political and strategic signi cance of geography that is the location size resources and power of regions and nations quotGeography is the most fundamental factor in the foreign policy of states because it is the most permanent 1 Halford Mackinder and 39the geographical pivot of history his 1904 1919 view of the geopolitical signi cance of Eurasian heartland and the variable power of landman and seaman military forces quotWho rules Eastern Europe commands the Heartland who rules the Heartland commands the World lsland who rules the World Island commands the world Mackinder 1919 What about rise of air power amp DEWline how permanent is geography In fact emphasis on the geopolitical shatterbelts Saul Cohen of Central Europe the Middle East and East Asia of abiding signi cance Mackinder s view survived through the Cold War quotThe United States most basic national security interests would be endangered if a hostile state or group of states were to dominate the Eurasian landmass that area of the globe often referred to as the world s heartland US National Security Committee 1988 2 Note the US military imperative for the spatial containment of USSR and fear of domino theory39 in the Cold War Maps of military involvement contrast the spatial involvement of US amp USSR USSR s dominant strategy proximate strategic involvement moving out from its core just like Mackinder s 39landman In contrast USA the seaman and involved wherever its eets would take it Con icts during the Cold War were related to the shatterbelts around 39the Eurasian heartland Note US strategic 39mental map in presidential State of the Union speeches 3 But was the Cold War image of two superpowers and its powerful rhetoric adequate Note military failures of each Vietnam Afghanistan Rise of EU Japan and now China and India as economic forces In economic terms weakening of US hegemony by 19705 4 Response 19805late 20005 America rst policy 1984 free enterprise Olympics in Los Angeles boycotted by USSR and US boycotted 1980 Moscow Olympics because of USSR invasion of Afghanistan Role of FTA 1989 and North American Free Trade Agreement 1993 in economic repositioning of US access to Canadian and Mexican oil amp gas and cheap Mexican labour Unilateralism under Pres George W Bush and back to the Middle East shatterbelt for the War on Terror in Iraq and Afghanistan 5 US overreach 46 of world military spending in 2006 national debt 9 trillion by 2007 And then came the great recession of 20082010 and huge US gov t bailouts 2009 de cit over 2 trillion and continuing de cits forecast each year until at least 2019 China has been buying huge amounts of US debt from its surplus but will it continue A new reserve currency to replace the dollar The 2008 Beijing Olympics 882008 preening the new China for a global audience Note China s economy is expected to exceed the US economy by around 2027 C21 the Chinese century With a new geopoHch A new world order or disorder Note Globe amp Mail headlines of 78 Jan 2011 on US overreach and Chinese militarisation 1 Extreme scal duress forces big cuts to US military 2 39China s new stealth plane may put US at risk For more see the Economist special report China s place in the world 4 Dec 2010


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