Week 4 Psych 108 Notes
Week 4 Psych 108 Notes
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Date Created: 04/24/14
week 4 lecture 42114 review partial report paradigm brie y presented array brief delay sensory memory auditorally cued row 0 high top row 0 medium middle o low bottom report 0 partial report I just the letters in the cued row 0 full report I all the letters if you can report all three letters in 1 row 9 letters then that means your a way of seeing how much is in memory w o requiring them to show everything results 4 letters full report 9 letters using partial report decay rate 94 letters in 1 second why do ppl not do as well on fill report They forget the letters before they can get them all out Advantage of partial report ppl can say the letters before they forget The longer the initial stimulus is presented the less likely ppl are to see the second set of dots It would work better if you showed it for a shorter period of time Sensory memory is initiated by the onset of the stimulus If you present stimulus and there is a short display it will give you a longer persistence Because the display is up the same time sensory memory is running out How long does it take for memory to totally fade 100 ms some challenges to sensory memory Haber limited functionality of sensory memory only occurs when followed by a blank screen otherwise masking only clear application is reading in lightning storm other possible functions allows for integration on brie y presented info provides a short term buffer manifestation of process that typically go on at the subliminal level echoic memory partial report paradigm used partial report paradigm with auditory information channels left right center 3 letters each ash after stimuli indicated which channel to report results o partial report 54 0 full report 44 o decay 4 sec 2 difference from auditory and visual decay rate auditory lasts 4 seconds visual last 1 second partial report is not as hard in echoic evidence for the stmltm distinction neurocognitive evidence HM no transfer to long term memory IB impaired short term memory otherwise normal Brown Peterson paradigm Trigrams presented SIW Count backwards by 339s Precipitous forgetting in 18 seconds Serial position curve Dissociations Logic some manipulations in uence one section of curve but not the other suggests distinct systems Delay between last word and the test Atkinson and Shiffrin explanation transfer to ltm due to time in limited buffer as new info enters the buffer old items are randomly eliminated Rundus rehearsal technique had ppl rehearse every word out loud while hearing serial list of words frequency of rehearsal predicted everything but recency problems with modal model impaired STM does not necessarily hurt learning possible to access LTN without going through STM 0 pattern recognition coding not always acoustic o evidence for visual working memory rehearsal does not always lead to better memory o hear list of words and repeat words beginning with specific letter 0 duration of repetition did not alter memory depth of processing effects of rehearsal depends on depth of processing type 1 processing maintenance rehearsal mere repetition less well remembered type 2 processing semantic processing elaborative rehearsal better remembered evidence lack of benefit of maintenance rehearsal incidental learning physical repeating letters auditory rhyming semantic meaning surprise memory recall test semantic performance superior problems with depth of processing turned out to be difficult to know what deep means transfer appropriate processing encoded semantically or acoustically tested semantically or acoustically performance optimized when tested in same modality as learned working memory approach does stm provide working space for manipulating information assumptions stm is like a desktop working memory o temporary storage is involved in info processing o allows independent sources to interact 0 common system operates across wide range of tasks I like a desktop basic model central executive provides the basic area in which calculations are made articulatory loop o slave system for audition visual spatial sketch pad o slave system for vision central executive characteristics plans coordinates but does NOT store info executive supervisor decides which issues deserve attention selects a strategy decides how to tackle a problem limited ability to perform simultaneous tasks evidence load rehearsing digits modestly impairs 0 learning primacy but not recency recall sentence verification categorization reasoning everything but recognition damage to frontal cortex 0 difficulty planning 0 difficulty reasoning OOOOO lecture 423 evidence for the phonological store phonological similarity effects pgtvcd harder than rhxkwy unattended speech effects hear 9 digits accompanied with silence spoken words nonsense recall impaired by distraction regardless of meaning word length effects long words less well remembered welsh digit span study why did welsh kids show poorer results than regular 0 More digits in welsh with more than one syllable than English Visual spatial sketchpad brooks visualized block F and tried to decide which corners were pointing outward examined competition between visualization and response 0 pointing spatial response 0 speaking verbal response result speaking faster than pointing for visual task both require visual when you visualize you rely on visual spatial sketchpad pointing is also visual pointing uses same system so it overloads more trouble episodic buffer temporary storehouse ah can hold and combine information from te phonological loop the visuospatial sketchpad and long term memory integrates information form different modalities evidence ppl remember words in a sentence than words out of context suggest words are stored in a meaningful representation in working memory cannot be accommodated by other systems central executive no storage capacities phonological store no capacity for meaningful analysis visual spatial sketchpad sentence advantage works with auditory info Big picture What we remember quickly whittles down Most info in sensory memory does not make it into STM Most info in STM does NOT make it into LTM Working memory Is like RAM on a computer Desktop where all the work gets done There are distinct types of memories associated with each sensory modality Sensory memory 0 Visual sensory memory 0 Echoic sensory memory Working memory 0 Visual spatial sketchpad o Phonological store Longterm memory Encoding process that enable information to be transferred form short term 9 long term memory Retention interval process that occur after encoding that may in uence whether material is later available Retrieval processes that in uence ability to call or recognize the previously encoded info Three fundamental themes of memory 1 meaningful information is more memorable depth of processing 2 memory tends to be schematic we remember the gist of experiences rather than the entire experience 3 memory is optimized when retrieval conditions correspond to encoding conditions encoding self reference effect encode words with respect to whether it structure upper or lower case sound rhymed with another word semantic was synonym with another word relate to self was true of self most powerful way reason for advantage of self 0 self is highly meaningful uber depth of processing encoding generation effect Slamecka and Graf read hot cold generate hot c result ppl recall info better if they generate it relative to if they read it o advantage more meaningful impact of schemas at encoding schema general knowledge or expectation based on past experiences expertise experts encode more information memory for random numbers undergrad learned to remember 50 numbers after hearing them just once by relating them to track times expertise memory for chess chess experts remember boards configurations better but only for playable configurations if the game was impossible then no difference why experts use knowledge of chess as a schema for understanding the chess board in a meaningful way memory for orders waiters much better at remembering orders limited to domain of expertise o no better memory overall just holding onto a specific ara of a domain of expertise o expertise is very limited 0 just because someone is good at memorizing numbers does not necessarily mean they will memorize letters well experts advantages more organized schemas to enable encoding better chunking through reorganization schemas are required to encode information washing laundry passage we don39t exclusively encode schemas sometimes we encode random information sometimes we remember certain things based on where we saw it 0 irrelevant to the meaning of the content
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