Week 14 Notes
Week 14 Notes Biology 106- Organismal Biology
Popular in Biology 106
Popular in Biology
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Silverman on Saturday April 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 106- Organismal Biology at Washington State University taught by Dr. Cousins & Dr. Lee in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 88 views. For similar materials see Biology 106 in Biology at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 04/25/15
42015 Dopamine Parkinson s Disease Schizophrenia reward center of brain social power stimulates it Serotonin Low levels linked to clinical depression Prozac Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor Amino acid neurotransmitters GABAgamma amino butyric acid hyperpolarization by opening Cl channels Glycinesavory to taste receptors Glutamate excitatory stimulates taste receptors Aspartate Often also used in the central nervous system Neuropeptide neurotransmitters Substance P endorphins Substance P Excitatory signal gives rise to perception of pain Endorphins Decrease perception of pain Receptors for endorphins also recognize opiates eg morphine and heroin Endorphins are also hormones produced by the anterior pituitary Norepinephrineserotonin and depression Catecholamine hypothesis depression represented a decreased availability of norepinephrine andor serotonin Treatments are electroshock therapy and drugs to increase norepinephrine andor serotonin availability Drug treatments Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors SSRI Fluoxetine HCI Prozac Trazodone Desyrel Sertraline HCI Zoloft Paroxetine HCI Paxil Drug treatments Tricyclic antidepressants Block high affinity serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake systems Increase sensitivity of serotonin receptors Example Amitriptyline Elavil Drug treatments Monoamine oxidase MAO inhibitors Example PhenelzineNardil How does an SSRI or a monoamine oxidase inhibitor work to increase serotonin availability SSRI blocks the uptake of serotonin back into the presynaptic cell after signal This makes serotonin signal last longer in the synaptic cleft Monoamine oxidase inhibitor prevents mitochondria from breaking down serotonin in the synaptic terminal making more serotonin available A newly discovered class of neurotransmitters gases Late 80 s nitric oxide NO and carbon monoxide CO NO causes smooth muscle cells to relax resulting in dilation of blood vessels NO has rapid effects Produced from the amino acid arginine NO can readily diffuse through tissues Half life of NO is only 510 seconds Turned into nitrates and nitrites Effects of NO occur within seconds and also end within seconds Recent data suggest that nervous system in animals may have evolved twice Genome sequence of ctenophores indicated that they evolved before sponges and that sponges are the ancestors of eumetazoans The nervous system of ctenophores may be completely different than the nervous system that we have been studying Investigations of ctenophore gene expression show that the following neurotransmitters are not used serotonin acetylcholine dopamine noradrenaline adrenaline octopamine histamine or glycine 42215 Animal Behavior keywords Fixed action pattern Sign stimulus proximate and ultimate causes of behavior imprinting sociobiology sexual selection altruism kin selection King Solomon s Ring Written by Konrad Lorenz He was a cowinner of the Nobel Prize for establishing the relationship between evolution and animal behavior They established the field of ethology a combination of laboratory and field science that integrates with neuroscience and evolution How do animals work meeting functional demands Body plans and structure physiological mechanisms behavior Caus for behavior proximate environmental stimuli that trigger behavior eg day length visual stimuli ultimate why does stimulus trigger behavior generally believed to be due to natural selection adaptive behavior Behavior results from both genes AND environment Whether an animal CAN exhibit a particular behavior is determined by genes Whether an animal DOES exhibit this behavior can be dependent on environment An animal may not exhibit a possible behavior in certain environments The cute responsi Lorenz theorized that certain quotinfantile featuresquot like big heads large eyes button noses and round bodies trigger a nurturing response in adults Evolutionarily this makes us more likely to care for our offspring but our preference for cuteness is so strong it spills over to other species Mickey s Transition from Rat to Human Baby His ears and head became much larger over time His nose became less sharp and pointy His eyes widened from two black dots to large white oval circles Evolutionary basis symmetry is a sign of health Lovebird study Genetic component illustrated by intermediate strips and tucking behavior in hybrid Environmental component illustrated by loss of ineffective tucking behavior by hybrids in later seasons Fixed action pattern Sequence of behavioral acts that is unchangeable and usually carried to completion once initiated Fixed action pattern is stimulated by a sign stimulus many animals only use a relatively small subset of sensory information to trigger behavior humans are more complex Digger wasp study Fixed action pattern is cueing on visual landmarks to locate nest sign stimulus is pattern of landmarks around nest What happened in this experiment Wasps went for the circle object even if it was just a circle of rocks Stickleback study Fixed action pattern aggression towards other males sign stimulus red belly More complex fixed action patterns in courtship behavior Betta spawning iClicker Yawning in humans is considered to be an example of this type of behavior A fixed action pattern B cute response C a behavior probably does not have a genetic component Imprinting A type of learning that is limited to a sensitive period of an animals life and is generally irreversible Work of Konrad Lorenz nobel prize 1973 great book to read King Solomon s Ring Imprinting in goose hatchlings Bonding occurs after hatching imprint of mother important for eliciting care developing species identity during sensitive period can be experimentally imprinted on the wrong mother 22415 Altruistic behavior Behavior that does not immediately benefit the individual Kin selection Increasing reproductive success of relatives Can be a cause of altruistic behavior Female ground squirrels make more alarm calls than males Why Animal intelligence Learning Experience based modification of behavior Vervet monkey alarm calls Different alarm calls for leopards eagles snakes lnfant monkeys give indiscriminate alarm calls but eventually learn to give the right call at the appropriate time Associative learning Classical conditioning Pavlov s dogs arbitrary stimulus related to reward or punishment Operant conditioning trial and error learning learn to associate own behavior to reward or punishment Mirror self recognition humans and great apes show mirror self recognition Communication Pheromones chemical trails honeybee dancing Why is there multi song behavior Warning off enemies attracting mates Attracting mates What does song repertoire have to do with being a good mate Postulate that repertoire increases fitness by making older more experienced males more attractive to females Testable hypotheses males learn more song types as they get older females prefer males with large repertoires Dog communication recorded growls from 20 pet dogs in three different situations a tugof war game with their owner competing with another dog for a bone and growling at an approaching stranger played the recordings to 36 other dogs that had each been left to gnaw on a bone Only those that heard the foodguarding growls tended to back off from the bone and stay away It seems that dog growls communicate context Farag a et al 2010 The bone is mine affective and referential aspects of dog growls Animal Behavior in press Grey Parrot Alex Vocabulary of 150 words names of 50 objects could describe their colors shapes and the materials they were made from He could ask for things and would reject a proffered item and ask again if it was not what he wanted He understood and could discuss the concepts of bigger different He could count up to six including the number zero and was grappling with the concept of seven when he died I It I It smaller same and Rhythm in Animals Present in humans and previously thought to only be in humans Theories related to vocal mimicry group unity and bonding May be present in Bonobos birds and sea lion not a vocal mimic Cockatoo snowball research at Neurosciences Institute La Jolla to determine whether truly synchronizing his body movements to the music as opposed to simply mimicking or responding to visual clues from humans present in the room at the same time Snowball39s favorite piece of music was played to him at several different tempos and his reactions recorded on video for later analysis The results showed that Snowball was capable of spontaneously dancing to human music and also that he could adjust his movements to match the tempo of the music albeit to a limited extent a behavior previously thought only to occur in humans
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