PS 326 Week 3 Lecture Notes - Appeasement
PS 326 Week 3 Lecture Notes - Appeasement PS 326
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Johanna Murphy on Saturday April 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PS 326 at University of Oregon taught by Nicolas Thompson in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 77 views. For similar materials see US Foreign Policy in Political Science at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 04/25/15
PS 326 US Foreign Policy Week 3 Lecture Notes Part 1 Blood and Oil PostWW II 0 In 1945 FDR first foresaw that the US would become dependent on oil pioneered a foreign policy based on it 0 Superior industry depended on oil helped us to win WWII 0 US consumed over 13 of its oil during WWII 0 1945 FDR met with the King of Saudi Arabia promised protection to Saudi Arabia in return for exclusive rights to their oil 0 US has been willing to ignore lack of democracy and human rights abuses in Saudi Arabia Cold War Era 0 Truman Doctrine based on Soviet Union threatening nearby countries 0 Declassified documents show the Truman administration was concerned about the Soviet Union getting hands on Middle Eastern oil 0 Vietnam War led to Nixon doctrine of teaching threatened countries to defend themselves not fight wars for them 0 Focused on supporting the Shah in Iran who would protect US interests 0 surrogate strategy stopped working when Iranian Revolution replaced the Shah with Ayatollah Khomeini O Forced US to intervene to protect American interests in Persian Gulf region 0 any outside assault on the Persian Gulf Region will be repelled by any means necessary 9 Jimmy Carter Persian Gulf War Era 0 Reagan converted joint task force into the Central Command first Command regarding the Middle East 0 Used military force to escort Kuwaiti oil ships through the gulf 0 When Iraq invaded Kuwait Bush feared Saddam Hussein was heading for the Saudi oil fields 0 Very clear that oil was the motivation for the US intervention in Kuwait 0 Public was opposed to going to war over oil 0 Bush changed tact stopped talking about oil began talking about nuclear weapons comparing Saddam Hussein to Hitler 0 Osama bin Laden led Saudi volunteers who went to Afghanistan to fight the Soviet Union with US Support O Offered to fight for Saudi Arabia against Iraqi troops instead of US troops O The US promised to leave as soon as the fighting was over convincing the Saudi King to accept US military presence 0 Continued US presence prompted Osama bin Laden to begin bombing assaults on US embassies 0 Bush came into presidency at time of huge energy crisis blackouts oil shortages 0 Issued National Energy Policy May 2001 O Chevron Exxon and Enron were present Cheney refused to meet with any environmentalists 0 Wanted drilling in ANWR Alaskan wildlife sanctuary 0 Not enough oil in the US to satisfy our use called for increased reliance on foreign oil 0 Strategy of Maximum Extraction required governments in the Middle East that will ensure continued oil exporting to the US 0 Iraq and Iran don t fall under that category 0 Bush administration denied that the war in Iraq was about oil 0 Americans generally believe in only using military power for higher principles not economic interests 0 2007 Bush announced new African Command first since Central Command 0 Africa projected to be one of the fastestgrowing sources of oil and gas for the US 0 China following US policy of militarizing economic interests 0 Supplies military weapons to countries that supply it with oil Part 2 Grand Strategy Who Determines Grand Strategy 0 Trubowitz assumes that executives presidents determine grand strategy 0 Many actors vie to in uence foreign policy decisions 0 Grand Strategy choices are constrained by geopolitical slack and partisan support for guns vs butter Political SelfInterest 0 Leaders want to remain in power 0 Executives can lose domestic support if they fail to respond to international threats Geopolitical Slack 0 Realists disagree over Whether security is scarce or abundant O Defensive realists believe security is abundant in the modern era 0 Offensive realists believe security is scarce Partisan Constraints on Strategic Choice 0 The international security environment is an insufficient predictor of Grand Strategy 0 Partisan coalition leaders must retain their party s support 0 Do they prefer guns or butter 0 opportunity costs revenue invested in butter cannot be spent on guns 0 Guns Party 0 Prefer expensive revisionist grand strategies 0 National security 0 Homeland security 0 Militaryindustrial complex 0 Butter Party 0 Prefer cheap status quo grand strategies 0 Infrastructure 0 Healthcare 0 Environment 0 Reduced taxation Guns Partv Strategies 0 If security is scarce low geopolitical slack 0 Internal balancing O Defensive war 0 If security is abundant high geopolitical slack O Expansionism O Imperialism O Wars of conquest Butter Partv Strategies 0 If security is scarce low geopolitical slack O Appeasement 0 External balancing O Buckpassing 0 If security is abundant high geopolitical slack O Retrenchment reducing international military presence 0 Isolationism George Washington and the J ay Treaty 0 After Revolutionary War US was still vulnerable 0 France was going through their Revolution which brought on attacks from other nations 0 US didn t want to get involved in con ict because they didn t want to start another with Britain 0 US was dependent on international trade for livelihood Britain didn t want them trading with France 0 British sailors would take over US naval ships and force sailors to work for British navy 0 Washington sent John Jay to negotiate treaty with Britain 0 Federalists were in favor of Jay Treaty because they had a stronger investment in Transatlantic trade than J effersonian Republicans 0 Republicans were more invested in bilateral trade with France wanted to bypass Great Britain 0 Also believed the US should honor France s support during Revolutionary War by not signing the treaty O Worried about the rise of a strong central state 0 Washington felt US wasn t in a position to challenge Great Britain ultimately backed the Federalists Abraham Lincoln 0 South was a monocrop economy for cotton 0 Exported to Great Britain which had the majority of textile industry very little textile production in the US 0 Needed to appease Britain because of their economic 9investment in the South 0 Lincoln was worried Britain would support the Confederacy even just acknowledging them as sovereign nation 0 Emancipation Proclamation re ected Britain s views on slavery had already abolished slavery in Britain Gained support for Union from European powers Lincoln declares a blockade but allowed English ships through because block them would probably lead to war with England elt Roosev Party was in favor of butter New Deal Roosevelt wanted to continue working for domestic recover from Great Depression and was reluctant to get involved in con icts of early W11 0 After WWI most of US supported staying out of wars Understood that the rise of Nazi Germany presented a significant threat to US 0 Also threatened America s access to trade with Europe Neutrality laws kept president from selling weapons to warring states including civil wars Roosevelt s advisor came up with Welles Plan which offered Germany chance to revise conditions of Treaty of Versailles After appeasement failed Roosevelt switched to buckpassing by supporting England and France in fighting Germany