PS 326 Week 4 Lecture Notes - Expansionism and Underextension
PS 326 Week 4 Lecture Notes - Expansionism and Underextension PS 326
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Johanna Murphy on Saturday April 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PS 326 at University of Oregon taught by Nicolas Thompson in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 79 views. For similar materials see US Foreign Policy in Political Science at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 04/25/15
PS 326 US Foreign Policy Week 4 Lecture Notes Expansionary and Underextension Strategies Whv do States Choose Expansionarv Grand Strategies 0 When geopolitical slack is high guns are preferred over butter 0 For offensive realists anarchy compels states to maximize relative power 0 For defensive realists states expand when they feel threatened 0 Trubowitz s Theory of Geopolitical Slack states expand when security is abundant and the partisan coalition prefers guns over butter What is Expansionism I When states expand national claims on the international system by O O O O O Asserting territorial claims Establishing colonial governments imperialism Claiming sphere of in uence Undertaking wars of conquest Creating binding international institutions I Usually at the conclusion of a war I Victor wants to maintain their power by creating new institutions I Cheaper than direct dominance of other states Asserting Territorial Claims I Senkaku Con ict islands between Taiwan Japan and China 0 Both Japan and China claim the islands are within their territory 0 Strategic because of shipping lanes if China claims islands they will expand their in uence into global trade in the area Claiming Spheres of In uence 0 After the Soviet Union fell Russia continued to try to in uence politics of surrounding states 0 Many formally Soviet countries have high percentages of ethnically Russian people 0 Russia claims it speaks for ethnic Russians in all areas Undertaking Wars of Conguest 0 Napoleon tried to expand the French Empire over majority of Europe 0 Japan invaded China Korea and Philippines during WWII Binding International Institutions 0 The League of Nations Wilson s initiative after WI 0 A collective security organization if any state in the league was attacked all other members were supposed to defend the attacked state 0 Many Americans were opposed felt they were getting trapped into European politics 0 The League of Nations failed but served as a template for post WWII organizations World Bank IMF and United Nations James Monroe 0 Elected right after War of 1812 0 Federalists were opposed to the War of 1812 essentially dissolved after the war lost favor with American people 0 Era of decreased party con ict 0 Monroe led only real party at the time Republicans 0 Henry Clay promoted the American System reducing international trade and encouraging domestic trade 0 Increasing tariffs 0 MidAtlantic region s manufacturers could raise prices and west got more infrastructure due to increased federal revenue 0 Included the National Pike railroad 0 South and Northeast regions were opposed 0 Didn t benefit from creation of new roads and relied heavily on trade with Europe 0 Monroe built coalition based on the South and Northeast undertook expansionary policies 0 1819 AdamsOnis treaty gave them Florida and significant chunk of Western territory 0 Monroe Doctrine Europe needed to stay out of Western Hemisphere O Worried about Spain reasserting control in the West due to the South American revolutions O Relied on Britain s naval power Britain wanted to prevent other powers from gaining ground in the West as well McKinley 0 Began expanding and claiming territories for the US mostly islands 0 After US had expanded to modern territory there were still expansionary sentiments as well as economic benefits to expansion 0 Spain was losing its power in the west 0 Yellow journalism 0 Pulitzer and Hearst newspaper owners were coming up with more and more sensational stories of human rights violations in Spain 0 Democrats were opposed to expansion 0 Republicans benefited from the naval buildup 0 Money went to Republican regions an more jobs for northern workers which led to more votes for Republican Strategic Underextension 0 Realpolitik and Innenpolitik both tend to overpredict expansionism 0 For realists when relative power increases international ambitions increase 0 Often relative power isn t accompanied by revisionist Grand Strategies 0 Restrained Grand Strategies 0 Isolationism O Retrenchment decreasing military expenditures and scaling back foreign commitments When States Will Choose Restraint 0 Offensive realists believe it is only a strategy taken by foolish or irrational leaders 0 Defensive realists believe states will choose restraint when they are not being threatened 0 Trubowitz s theory lines up more with defensive realism 0 When geopolitical slack is high and party in power prefers butter over guns Concept of Partisan Coalition 0 Parties are composed of factions representing different interests 0 Benefit of investing in guns over butter varies geographically some regions benefit more than others 0 Some states get 410 of GDP from military spending more likely to vote Republican 0 More of a guns vs butter spectrum than direct tradeoff 0 Republicans more of a guns party democrats more of a butter party 0 Some exceptions for example libertarian republicans want to dramatically reduce military spending Martin Van Buren 0 President during depression and financial crisis but no geopolitical challenger 0 Support drawn from various groups around the country 0 Rarer used military refused efforts to modernize and nationalize military forces 0 Political rebellions against Britain occurring in Canada but Van Buren made it clear the US would remain neutral in the con ict 0 Because of highly sectional political coalition Van Buren tried to avoid making major decisions around foreign policy 0 Both factions supported guns over butter but for different policies 0 Had opportunity to expand into new territory especially Texas but chose not to Herbert Hoover 0 Won presidency easily due to prosperity of the 1920s but the Great Depression broke out in 1929 0 US had been involved in the affairs of Latin American countries could have expanded into that region but did not 0 Withdrew military presence in the region 0 Also could have reacted to Japan invading Manchuria but didn t 0 There were pressures within the party to limit US international trade relations 0 Promoted small increases in tariffs due to falling price of agricultural goods worldwide 0 Both parties at the time favored butter over guns 0 International expansion wasn t really an option due to economic decline 0 Hoover followed policy of retrenchment
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