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Hist 347 Week 4 Lecture Notes - Stalin's Revolution from Above

by: Johanna Murphy

Hist 347 Week 4 Lecture Notes - Stalin's Revolution from Above Hist 347

Marketplace > University of Oregon > History > Hist 347 > Hist 347 Week 4 Lecture Notes Stalin s Revolution from Above
Johanna Murphy
GPA 3.96
Julie Hessler

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Week 4 Lecture Notes on Stalin's revolution, drive to industrialize, attack on religion, and liquidation of kulak class. Includes notes on Agrippina Korevanova reading.
Julie Hessler
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Johanna Murphy on Saturday April 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 347 at University of Oregon taught by Julie Hessler in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 120 views. For similar materials see USSR/Russia in History at University of Oregon.


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Date Created: 04/25/15
Hist 347 History of Russia Week 4 Lecture Notes Stalin s Revolution from Above Industrialization Drive 0 Bolsheviks were not happy about the NEP O 1920X debates about how long it should last 0 Communists believed it compromised their ideals 0 19241925 Soviet economy returned to almost preWWI output levels 0 Soviet leaders believed capitalist powers might wage war on them 0 enemies on all sides 0 Defense industry became priority even though Red Army was mostly demobilized 0 Needed to catch up with more advanced countries 0 Persistent shortage of manufactured goods 0 First FiveYear Plan 19291932 Trotsky 0 Drove industrialization financed by squeezing the peasants 0 Stalin exiled him but ended up following his ideas about industrialization NEP Economy 0 Legalization of peasant trade seemed to mean that market economy was going to return 0 Soviet leaders tried to control prices of products 0 If goods like cloth became too expensive it would make peasants withdraw from market and not sell their grain 0 Led to increased black market 0 Peasants could also retreat to their own local economies which was a step backward to socialists 0 FiveYearPlan became crazy push to finish 0 Chaos loss of production famine 0 Goals were too high unreasonable Collectivization of Agriculture 0 Tax in kind replaced by money tax 1924 O Signaled shift in regime s relationship to peasants 0 For most of the 1920s there were still private traders but the State was able to gain about 50 of crop 0 Procurement crises 19271928 0 Problems with prices state trying to buy crops at lower than the market price 0 Peasants began shifting farms to meat soybeans crops with higher prices 0 Bolsheviks feared peasants could starve them out of power 0 Sent out policymakers to farmer regions to see why they were delivering so little again 0 Decided local leadership was too willing to go along with what the peasants wanted 0 Brought up article from the Civil War that made hoarding grain illegal peasants could be arrested 0 Even though selling excess was legal under the NEP 0 Also started arresting private traders still legal under NEP 0 Private businesses began closing down 0 By 1930s private business virtually disappeared 0 Stalin concluded state needed to do something radical to stabilize food production 0 Transition to collective farms which could feed the working class and the excess could be exported 0 Return to armed requisitioning 0 In 1930 Stalin published an article saying that the Soviet leaders had violated peasant s rights to join voluntarily O Scapegoating the orders to use force had come from above 0 Peasants took it to mean they could leave collective farms 0 Pressure to collectivize came back quickly 0 By mid1930s almost all were collectivized Liguidation of Kulaks as a Class 0 The state recognized that only a minority of peasants wealthy kulaks were making money off grain 0 Some were wealthy but many were only little bit better off than other peasants 0 When officials tried to get peasants to join collective farms most were reluctant 0 State created three categories of kulaks especially dangerous dangerous and less dangerous 0 All especially dangerous kulaks were supposed to be shot all dangerous kulaks to be sent to Siberia 0 Every region had a quota for each category of kulaks 0 All property was to be confiscated used as incentive for peasants to join collective farms 0 Unspoken threat that any peasants who didn t join the collective farms might be labelled as kulaks 0 Policies meant to be a total break from the past cultural revolution 0 Bolsheviks felt that too much of old society had survived 0 Examples bourgeois cafes peasants going to church Attack on Religion 0 Sharia Law was common in Central Asia 0 Communist wanted to break the hold of Islam in the region 0 Began campaign of searches and seizures of churches 0 Church statues and icons were taken down buildings used for other things 0 Coincided with 19291930 first big push to collectivize 0 Thousands of volunteers were mobilized to go to villages and help collectivize 0 Had no real agricultural knowledge no local ties 0 People began leaving villages even though there were no jobs in the urban areas Class Warfare 0 Some peasants were chosen as kulaks because they had a good house for Party meetings 0 Since majority of peasants were believers majority of churches closed and priests were arrested which made the peasants angry 0 Response to collectivization was heavily negative 0 A few even viewed it as an apocalypse Stalin as the antiChrist 0 4 million peasants were involved in armed rebellions 19301931 0 Soviet Secret Police reports described them as kulak uprisings 0 Peasants felt they were being returned to serfdom 0 Some rebelled by not working very hard Famine 0 Some peasants massslaughtered their livestock 0 Would rather kill animals and eat or sell the meat than just give it up 0 Meant less fertilizer for crops agricultural production dropped even more 0 Soviets had promised tractors for collective farms but many didn t arrive or broke down easily 0 Still relied heavily on horses but many horses had been slaughtered 0 Led to famine worst in 19321933 0 Procurement quotas continued to go up Peripheral States 0 Population of Kazakhstan declined by IA 0 Ukrainians felt the Soviet leaders had intentionally created the famine to weaken Ukraine 0 All Ukrainian nationalists were arrested including Communist leaders who were suspected of having a nationalist bias 0 Ukraine was perceived as a hotbed of resistance 0 Estimated 35 million deaths overall Aggripina Korevanova 0 Very clearly writes distinction between dark prerevolutionary past to bright Soviet future 0 Gained sense of personal meaning from her work 0 Not given much choice over where she was assigned 0 Especially focused on women s emancipation Stalinist Society in the 1930s 0 Time of upheaval regime also seemed to be stepping back from revolutionary policies 0 In areas of family and labor relations started to become more conservative Policv Towards Women 0 Initial Bolshevik opinions were that women had been oppressed 0 Saw women as natural allies 0 Many women were illiterate uneducated and more religious more traditional 0 In early revolutionary period Bolsheviks focused on literacy and education for women 0 Also encouraged women s political organizations 0 In Central Asia encouraged Muslim women to get rid of veil 0 Sometimes resulted in women being shunned by their communities 0 Discussions of how women had opportunity to reject housework in exchange for communal childcare and kitchens 0 In reality communal childcare rarely got off the ground 0 Stalin began sacrificing socialist ideals for industrializationbuilding up economy 0 Shift towards massive female participation in workforce With increasing numbers of women in the workforce bad conditions and famine women were not having babies Moscow in the early 1930s had 4X as many abortions as live births Had to strike a balance so they would still have a workforce in the future Early 1930s Stalin declared abortion illegal with strong punishments Put out propaganda blaming men for high divorce rates shouldn t be so easy to divorce spouse Family Relations Young people had been the most enthusiastic and motivated in the revolution 0 State instinctively trusted youth over older generations 0 Children were told to be on alert in case parents were questioningundermining Soviet values Children urged to listen to Soviet authorities rather than their parents Stakhanovism Terror Named after miner who had broken all previous records for mining coal 0 People were urged to strive for individual production records rewarded with material goods Break with revolutionary values moving towards capitalism O Celebrated for production and consumption 0 Examples of life every worker could would someday have Trotsky called it the revolution betrayed Stalin countered that the revolution hadn t sought to make everyone poor but to allow workers to have a good life Shift in values was disorienting for many 1930s terror began by turning against Party members 1934 leader of Leningrad Soviet was assassinated 0 Still don t know who did it Stalin used the assassination to unleash terror against oppositionists those who had sided with Trotsky O Expanded to attack people in positions of power


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