Class Notes, 4/21-4/23
Class Notes, 4/21-4/23 PSYC2012
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Lowe on Sunday April 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC2012 at George Washington University taught by Dr. Duval in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 184 views.
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Sunday April 26 2015 Class Notes Social Psychology Groups Continued Possible problems with groups Process Loss in any aspect of group interaction that inhibits good problem solving Failure to share unique information Group polarization that group discussion leads to more extreme decisions the risky shift Example If you get together with random people to discuss gun control laws and you are at a 5 on this If you get together with people who have other reasons that add to your reasons you may leave at an 8 Happens due to Persuasive Arguments Perspective people hear more arguments in favor of a certain position and it reinforces and strengths their initial decisions Social Comparison extremity can be viewed as confidence so as discussion appears to be going a certain direction people begin to oneup each other moving Groupthink the tendency of members of highly cohesive groups to seek consensus so strongly that they ignore information inconsistent with their views and often make disastrous decisions Members of the group become so consumed with the idea that the group needs to be unified in their thought process that analyzing all the info becomes a second priority 1982 by Janis by looking back at various decisions that were made poorly mainly major political decisions that he considered to exhibit this Bay of Pigs Naval personnel at WWII Watergate coverup continuation Image from book and powerpoint Sunday April 26 2015 Antecedents things that lead to groupthink Symptoms what groupthink causes Avoiding Groupthink Policymakers shouldn t be isolated in Bay of Pigs people with useful information weren t contacted because secrecy was so important Establish norms that doubts should be expressed Often the leaders role I encourage you to voice your doubts Leader should not express hisher own opinion This is because people may want to just agree with the leader for various reasons Appoint a devil s advocate who s job it is to counter every idea Actually tell someone to come up with reasons as to why an idea may be bad Others besides Janis have conducted experiments testing groupthink BUT research has not supported everything and so it may be that there are really only a few of those things listed in the image that are actually part of groupthink Groups are not always bad decision makers they just need to make sure they are building off each other recognizing experts etc The Self The Self essentially deals with who you are how did you come to be who you are and what you understand as who you are Pretty broad Will talk about affective selfesteem behavioral how to control this and cognitive schemas aspects of the self Subjective SelfAwareness recognition that the self is separate from the other objects in one s physical environment Don t know we are not part of the environment until about 3 months of age Sunday April 26 2015 Objective SelfAwareness capacity to be the object of one s own attention Ability to turn inward and look at yourself to consider one s own beliefs or to learn something about yourself or to determine whether something is an accurate depiction of yourself etc Common protocol to see if someone has reached this ability is the Red Dot Test Red Dot Test bringing a toddler into a lab with mirrors and let them play around Then have parents put a red spot on their nose with lipstick or die when they don t notice it Do they look in the mirror and try to rub the dot off or do they assume they are looking at another baby with a dot on their nose If they rub it off they have gotten the ability to do this Usually around age 2 Dolphins chimps and humans are typically thought of as the only ones who can do this SelfConcept the contents of the self SelfSchema mental structure that people use to organize knowledge about themselves Example If you consider yourself a student and think of that as a key part of who you are if you were to think back over your day you will remember the lecture from earlier or the exam you get back Learning from ourselves SelfPerception Theory Bem observing our own behavior and then interpreting it Example if you eat a sandwich in 2 minutes you say wow I must have been hungry Must be from an internal reason not with any external justification Intrinsic Motivation engaging in an activity because we enjoy it or find it interesting Example if you love running and do it because it gives you a lot of energy you are intrinsically motivated to run Extrinsic Motivation engaging in an activity because of external rewards Sunday April 26 2015 Example if you are running to lose weight you are extrinsically motivated to run OverJustification Effect tendency for people to view their behaviors as caused by extrinsic reasons and to underestimate the intrinsic value Example professional athletes can fall victim to this They became professionals because they loved it so much and practiced practiced practiced to get amazing This may lead to the overjustification effect in that now they no longer intrinsically enjoy it because they are now getting money for what they used to love doing Temporal Comparison comparing our present self to our past self Example I am a better student now than I was in high school I am a better tennis player now than I was in 3rd grade Using this comparison to give you a sense of where you are now SelfAwareness directing attention inward toward the self state vs trait Highly selfaware very turned inward and helps you really asses who you are State temporary condition influenced by the situation SA temporarily increased camera mirror etc Trait a stable dispositional characteristic a part of who we are Individual Difference Variable aspects of people s personalities that make them different from other people Study researchers put a bowl of candy outside the house on halloween with a note that says please take 1 piece of candy The IV was the presence of a mirror with a mirror there or without a mirror there When there was a mirror kids were more likely to take 1 piece than taking a handful of candy Learning from others Feedback from Others direct or indirect Direct Molly I m sorry but you have a terrible voice and I don t want you in my choir Sunday April 26 2015 Indirect Tereese notices that she is consistently picked last for the kickball team in gym class After a while she realizes that she is the worst person in the class at kickball Social Comparison compare ourselves to others normally to similar others Example think back to grade school when you were trying to figure out if you are a good singer or not If you were in music class and heard everyone else not hitting the right notes but you were you will think you are a good singer Upward Comparison consciously compare ourselves to someone MORE competent than ourselves Example Maybe you are a sprinter and want to be a good sprinter You know you re better than the other 15 year olds so you want to compare yourself to someone amazing like Bolt This will push you to work harder to reach his level Downward Comparison consciously compare ourselves to someone LESS competent than ourselves Makes you feel better about yourself so you will do this Higgins SelfDiscrepancy Theory Actual Self our current selfconcept attributes we possess Possible Selves hypothetical self concepts describes a potential future self Ideal Self attributes we would like to possess Example being a professional tennis player Ought Self attributes we believe we should possess Example you re parents want you to take over their law firm and so you think you should go to law school Things people close to us want us to have and so you think you should Discrepancies lead to negative emotions Negative emotions differ between the various discrepancies Theory update further dimension added to Higgins theory how likely for gap to close Sunday April 26 2015 There may not be a lot of disappointment or frustration if both goals are attainable even if not at one time gap Closes Sunday April 26 2015 Class Notes Social Psychology The Self Continued Affective Component of selfconcept SelfEsteem overall attitude about the self evaluation of the contents of our self concepD Global overall evaluation There are tests to test this revolve around asking questions like do you have a lot to be proud of SelfEfficacy evaluation of competence for a specific task Example I am not a good drawer low selfefficacy for drawing but I can still have a pretty high global selfesteem because it does not matter to me that much Has to do with how key that element is to how you define yourself as Example If Professor Duval felt she was a very poor teacher low self efficacy of teaching this would most likely effect her global selfesteem because teaching is her profession SelfEvaluation Maintenance SEM Model Tesser Two assumptions 1 People try to increase their selfesteem for the most part 2 Our relationships with others impact our selfesteem Similar to Social Identity Theory in Groups amp Prejudice differentiating our group from other groups and thinking your group is best thus increasing self esteem Two processes of the model 1 Reflection increase in selfesteem by reflecting in glory of close friend s accomplishments Sunday April 26 2015 Example your best friend is the lead in the school play and everyone is awe struck by her performance After the end of the play you say oh yeah we re best friends we re really tight Thus leading to increased selfesteem 2 Comparison a decrease in selfesteem by comparing your performance to the superior performance of a close friend Example your best friend is the lead in the school play and everyone is awe struck by her performance After the end you start to think wow l m horrible at acting she is so much more talented than me Thus leading to decreased selfesteem WHICH one will we engage in How integral that idea is to you Example In the example above you are more likely to engage in reflection is you go to the play knowing you aren t good at acting and never wanted to be in the plays because it is not important to you However if you are also in the play but just a chorus member and no one says how amazing you did you are going to engage in comparison because it was important to you Maintaining SelfEsteem Downward Social Comparison consciously comparing yourself to someone who is less successful or less happy Makes us feel better about ourself SelfHandicapping literally sabotaging your own performance like augmentation Essentially you are providing yourself for an excuse for what you consider to be imminent failure Example you haven t come to class or done the work all semester The final is the next day and you decide instead of studying cause you aren t gonna do well anyway you are going to go party You come in the next day and fail the test its because you were hungover instead of that you just didn t know anything Augmentation would have come in if you actually passed the test You didn t know anything but you still did well so you re selfesteem is increased Example you do all the work and work really hard for the class You tell yourself that it doesn t matter and you will still fail the final When you do Sunday April 26 2015 really well on it you feel amazing about yourself because your standards were so low to begin with Understanding Our Emotions TwoFactor Theory experiencing an emotion is a 2 step process we experience physiological arousal and then seek an appropriate explanation for it Example you are walking into a big exam and your physiologically aroused then attribute it to being nervous you are walking down the stairs on christmas morning and your physiologically aroused then attribute it to being excited The physiological response shows we are experiencing some kind of emotion BUT the arousal does not tell us which emotion we are feeling Study had an attractive female research assistant ask random questions of male participants on a suspension bridge that went over a deep gorge Two groups were on the end of the bridge or in the middle of the bridge She then gave them her phone number for if they had any questions More men who were interviewed in the middle of the bridge than those who were interviewed on the end of the bridge This is because there was physiological arousal in the middle of the bridge because it is scary which was not happening on the end This physiological arousal was due to being scared but the men took it as just because they thought she was good looking Behavioral Component of the self SelfPresentation Impression Management process of manipulating selfimages and behavior to project a certain impression to others usually a positive one High self monitor will engage more in selfpresentation SelfPresentation Strategies 1 Intimidation arouse fear through threats and anger the bully 2 Supplication appearing helpless to solicit help from others stereotypical female Example a women saying in a baby voice oh my I have this big pile of rocks I need to move How am I ever going to do this 3 SelfPromotion describing and demonstrating competence the showoff 4 lngratiation telling people positive things about themselves the kissass Sunday April 26 2015 Relationships Need for Affiliation humans have a tendency to seek out the company of other people Study participants were asked a few times a day if they were with people Results showed that adults spend 75 of their time with others Have more in times of excitement or fear Root in early childhood with the principal attachment Attachment an intense emotional tie with another person ln infancy we refer to the childcaregiver attachment bond Ainsworth Strange Situation a mobile toddler brings a kid into a room with a bunch of cool toys in the corner that another boy is playing with The child wont run to the toys but cling onto the mother s leg and use them for a secure base for exploration He only will go once his mom tells him its okay Then when a stranger comes in he runs back to his mom until he feels comfortable again Then the mother leaves he runs to the door and cries and pounds on the door When the mom comes back the child is soothed Attachment styles building block for future relationships because this childparent bond is the first one we have in life Secure uses parent as a secure base for exploration distraught when parents leaves quickly be soothed when the parent comes back 65 of children are this in US Tend to grow up with higher selfesteem more social competence Parent who isn t a helicopter parents but isn t an absent parent Avoidant don t use parent as a secure base for exploration doesn t cry when parent leaves doesn t go over when mother comes back Parent is more rejecting can t count on parent being there Therefore they learn that they are on their own and shouldn t rely on others 20 of children are this in US 10 Sunday April 26 2015 Ambivalent clings to their parent use them as secure base but won t explore get angry at parent for leaving and takes a while for them to calm down Parents who are inconsistent helicopter sometimes rejection sometimes Kid is never sure what they are going to get 15 of children are this in US Levinger s Model of Relationships NOT just romantic 11 1 Attraction the desire to approach someone Some attraction between 2 people is needed before a relationship can begin Attraction involves Propinquity physical distance between two people closer is more likely to get to know each other This goes along with mereexposure theory because if you live closer you are more likely to bump into someone UNLESS you originally do not like them Familiarity the frequency of contact The internet and social media has led to the split of these two things into nonsynonymous concepts Physical Attractiveness we are attracted to people who we find physically attractive Applies to friendships and romantic relationships What is physical attractiveness Baby faces for women mature faces for men average faces Physical Attractiveness Stereotype a tendency to overgeneralize from physical appearance what is beautiful is good Study on every trait attractive people were rated to better than unattractive people More attractive people have no real better traits based on research except better social skills why higher selfesteem others are more engaged when talking to you because you re good looking others approach you more 12 Sunday April 26 2015 Matching Hypothesis romantic partners tend to be similar in physical attractiveness 2 Building the initial attraction is built upon as you learn more about each other Build on initial attraction and seeing if this relationship is meant to be 3 Continuance maintaining a relationship that you are part of Even though you re at school you maintain relationship with parents friends from high school etc 4 Deterioration a worsening in the relationship it appears less desirable than it previously did Will you work on it and go back to continuance Or will it 5 Ending