ZOL 313 Week 14
ZOL 313 Week 14 ZOL 313
Blue Mountain State
Popular in Animal Behavior
Popular in Animal Science and Zoology
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elaine Foster on Monday April 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ZOL 313 at Michigan State University taught by Dr. Dyer in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 146 views. For similar materials see Animal Behavior in Animal Science and Zoology at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 04/27/15
ZOL 313 Animal Behavior Communication 0 Referential Communication 0 Worker bee performs a pantomime of flight Body movements correlate with flight direction and distance Decoded by follower bees o Vervet monkeys Three classes of calls with distinct referents and distinct effects on receivers o Leopard call run 0 trees out to tips of branches 0 Eagle call trees stay close to trunk 0 Snake call stand tall look around in grass 0 Quantitative Status Baddes o Diagnosing correlation between signal amp underlying state of sender Strength of correlation influenced by slope amp scatter 0 Signal Design 0 Proximate Questions mechanisms for production modulation and reception of communicative signals 0 Ultimate Questions about history amp function Why signals have the form that they do 0 Requires correlating signal form to the physical and social context of communication Why animals use and respond to signals in the way that they do 0 Requires analyzing strategic decisions of senders amp receivers 0 Signal form matches function Echolocation short highfrequency calls easily reflected by objects repetition allows ongoing sampling of environment Chemical communication in moths 0 Female moths emit a pheromone to attract males in virtual darkness 0 Male antennae highly sensitive increase surface area by feathers o Detect single molecules of pheromone 0 Male tracks concentration gradient to find female 0 Odor is species specific so is receptor 0 Odors have light molecular weight 0 Communication channel is private but vulnerable to eavesdropping o Bolas spider can emit same chemical odor as female moth to attract male moth its prey 0 When amp Why to Communicate 0 Strategic decisions depend upon costs amp benefits Senders 0 Costs of signaling 0 Benefits Receivers 0 Costs of responding 0 Benefits NOTE potential conflicts of interest and huge role played by receiver if it doesn t respond no signaling occurs ZOL 313 Animal Behavior Communication networks Eavesdropping 0 Potential receivers o Intended receiver whose response would enhance signaler fitness 0 Unintended receiver eavesdropper 9 imposes cost on signaler o Signals should be selected to be 0 More detectable by intended receiver 0 Less detectable by unintended receivers Outside range of sensory abilities of unintended receiver Low amplitude can t travel as farfast Hard to localize o AntiPredator calls in Birds 0 Alarm calls seet Pure tones Soft onset o Mobbing calls Noisy broadband loud Repeated o Begging calls in Birds 0 Tradeoff reduce detection by predators and still be heard by parents Higher frequency calls don t travel as far Less likely to be heard outside the nest by predators Ground nesting birds have higher frequency calls Communication networks the enemy of my enemy is my friend 0 Plans can give off signals pollination protection 0 Similar to Schreckstoff in fish attracts predators of predators o Is his a signal or a cue 0 Signal natural selection has shaped both signaler amp receiver 0 Cue natural selection as shaped receiver but not signaler Communication networks the predator of my prey is my friend 0 Greater Honeyguide eats wax o Ratel honey badger eats bees larvae 9 leaves wax 0 doesn t give a shit about getting stung o Borana people nomads 9 also leave wax 0 also don t give a shit The problem of signal honesty o Is honest signal produced 0 Under what circumstances do you expect animals to be honest or dishonest 0 Examples of dishonest signaling 0 Brood parasitism cuckoos o Confuse competitors with false alarm calls 0 Predator recognition signals 0 Bluffing signals in fights ZOL 313 Animal Behavior 0 Aggressive mimicry Bolas spiders 0 Protective mimicry Batesian o Honesty is favored 0 When signalers amp receives have common interests Honeyguide Borana Honey bee dance language 0 If receives can ignore dishonest signals Why don t receivers ignore these dishonest signals What would keep signalers honest o Receivers have costs amp benefits of responding and uncertainty matters 0 Diagnosing correlation between signal amp underlying state ofsender 0 Why respond to dishonest signals 0 Cost of being too choosy Set threshold 0 Too discriminating miss a lot of good males 0 Not discriminating enough get all good males but also bad males 0 Choice threshold depends upon cost of choosing incorrectly Two kinds of wrong choices 0 Failing to choose good male misses o Wrongly choosing bad male false alarms o What enforces honesty when receivers are hurt by dishonesty o Receivers discriminate against dishonest signals lowering incentive of signalers to produce them 0 This works if receivers only respond to signals that are hard to fake What makes signals hard to take 0 Signal is a reliable index of underlying state eg body size 0 Signals of quality that are costly hence achievable only by highquality signalers 0 Keeping signalers honest Receiver Receiver preference Source of honesty Female bullfrog Deeper croak larger male better territory Physics of sound production Many female birds Showy plumage good genes Energy cost of signal Many female birds Elaborate song repertoires good genes Energy cost survivorship Female Red Deer Amplitudeduration of male roar good Energy cost of signal genes Female fish birds Carotenoid pigments good genes or good Challenge of obtaining territory pigments ZOL 313 Animal Behavior 0 Begging Calls in Birds 0 Are parents being influenced Calls induce parents to feed chicks Louder begging leads to more feeding 0 Calls are costly o Are begging calls honest Parents don t feed all chicks equally often and not all live Which to feed 0 Ones most likely to survive Gape color varies among chicks indicates offspring Vigor Do parents feed vigorous offspring more Group Living amp Cooperation 0 Sociobiology o The study of the biological basis of social behavior Can be approached with all 4 of Tinbergen s Questions 0 Key Questions Why form groups at all 0 What are benefits given costs Why cooperate o What are benefits of helping others How to organize social group 0 Costs of group living Spread of disease Share resources Aggression Attracting predators vulnerability Mate competition 0 Benefits of group living Defense against predators Improved foraging success Improved resource defense 0 But why actively help Examples Alarm signals Cooperative defense of territories pied wagtail Cooperative defense against predators eg mobbing Sharing of food Sharing of mates Cooperative care of offspring Florida scrub jay 0 Especially in case of Eusociality o Eusociality Overlapping generations Cooperative care of young Reproductive division of labor 0 Queensmales reproduce v workers don t reproduce Taxonomic Distribution ZOL 313 Animal Behavior 0 Termites hymenopteran insects bees wasps amp ants aphids thrips ambrosia beetles snapping shrimp naked mole rats DanNin s one special difficulty which at first appeared to me insuperable and actually fatal to my theory 9 sterile casts 0 Why is this a difficulty 0 Differential success of inherited variants o Paradox of cooperation why help Roles donors amp recipients of help Paradox donor sometimes seems to pay a cost recipient reaps benefit 39 Wpe of Predator of callers captured of noncallers captured Y donors recipients Aerial 142 2 1139 28 Terrestrial 12153 8 6149 4 I heses ls cooperation for the good of the group 0 Reproductive restraint by Great Tits 0 What limits clutch size to 8 or 9 eggs H1 Population benefit 9 too many eggs would cause population to crash H2 Individual benefits 9 clutch size maximizes the fitness of the individual