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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maddie Franciskovich on Wednesday April 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC-S100 at Indiana University taught by Peter Lista in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 103 views. For similar materials see SOC-S100 in Sociology at Indiana University.
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Date Created: 04/29/15
42915 955 PM I Health Illness and Medicine A the study of distribution of health and illness and access to medical care across social groups and the study of the organization of medical care and its consequences for individuals in society 1 Focus on epidemiology and etiology study of the social distribution of disease disorder disability and death Considers variables such as race gender class education age geography religiosity The study of causes origins Social causes 2 Focus on the organization of medicine IIHealth and Illness A Three conceptions of Health and Illness a Description iii iv Strongly rooted in science Illness as the presence of disease physical malfunction Good health the absence of illness Four assumptions dealing with health and illness b Assumptions Illness defined as a deviation from the normal functioning of the body Doctrine of specific etiology 39 39 Universal experience 9 every person experiences every illness the same Medical neutrality 9 may not have solution to every problem c Prime objective the eradication of disease and death a Description Individuals own assessment of their wellbeing ii In general how would you rate your own health iii Standards ofjudgment vary from person to person a Illness is an inability to function normally adequately according to the standards of your group b Deviations from culturally established norms of physical health or wellbeing c 9 depends on the culture that you are in d III World Health Organization A state of complete physical mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity IV BEHAVIOR AND ROLE A 1 what people think feel and do about their health and wellbeing a health behavior also covers risky behaviors 2 what people think feel and do when they believe they have a physical have an illness a Five people with the same biomedical problem may do different things b Illness behaviors also entail what we think about others claims of illness c We walk through a variety of criteria in validating claims ofiHness 3 HEALTH AND ILLNESS ARE SOCIALLY CONSTRUCTED a Health and illness are socially constructed the meaning of illness affects the experience of illness response to illness and health care policies that are developed 1 Introduced a the sick role is meant to encourage individuals to return to their normal social role b medicine medicalization and the sick role all act as a form of social control in order to minimize eliminate or normalize deviant behaviorquot a The sick person is not held personally responsible for his or her poor health i People can influence their health but it is not their fault that they are sick The sick person is entitled to certain rights and privileges including a release from normal responsibilities i Chronic illness of in acoma The sick person is expected to take steps to regain his or her health 3 Why is the sick role temporary a They are not expected to fulfill their normal responsibilities but are eventually expected to recover and take original responsibilities back follow through i Channel these individuals back to their usual roles Avoid secondary gains i Benefitting without having to contribute anything 0 Benefitting from being sick when you are not really sick at all 0 That is why we want those people to move back into their usual roles after being sick is so that they will not benefit from being ill ii Seen as a threat to society 4 Social Construction of Illness Behavior a Illness behavior is socially constructed b Ways of demonstrating social construction i Examine how the same phenomenon is interpreted differentlysimilarly across cultures ii Examine some phenomenon and how it changes over time historically within the same culture 0 How anorexia was once viewed as a religious action where is now known as an eating disorder 0 How a view of a disorder is changed over time iii Focus in on debate about the nature of that phenomenon iv Examine how laypersons and professionals interpret phenomenon How people think about a phenomenon influences management of the problem For doctor patient relationships practitioners need to be aware of how patients think about their medical problems v Examine the functions of diagnosis Fibromyalgia and how it affects women talk about symptoms but cannot pinpoint a cause 9 maybe it is made up or it is actually a disease 0 We want a diagnosis so that they can validate the illness of disease 0 One thing to say you have a pain versus having fibromyalgia that has a name and that can be identified and validated as a illness of sickness vi Examples 0 Anorexia o ADHD Alcoholism Obesity Autism Fibromyalgia C Medicalization 1 a social construction process Reconceptualizating a set of symptoms natural condition or a social problem as a medical disorder to be treated be medical experts a b Physicians become agents of social control c d Pharmaceutical industry contributes to medicalization as Condition placed in the hands of medical authority Social problems become individual problems well i Will it be covered by insurance or not considered a medical issue of social D Medicine is Social Control 1 the ways medicine functions to secure adherence to social norms a b Medical advice counsel c d Medical treatment designed to return individuals back to Minimize eliminate or normalize deviant behavior General knowledge that is health related conventional roles i Example get a specific amount of sleep every night eat a well balanced breakfast washing your hands after the restroom and before meals 2 Role of the medicalization process and subsequent medical intervention 3 Three general forms of this type of control control due to medical a drugs medical procedures b the role of medicine in collaboration with other institutions i role as information provider in court cases providing specialists and gate keeper note from health center c involves defining behavior or conditions as an illness because of the social and ideological benefits given by conceptualizing it in medical terms i Terms to define experiences or behaviors ii Maintaining social standard V Assessing Health A illness disease injury as well as disability B death C Social characteristics for health 1 2 9 5quot 7 Age a Older people Sex a Women except mortality b Women are sicker c Men die quicker exception cardiac disease Raceethnicity Socioeconomic status Marital status Religiosity Education D Least healthy 1 2 3 Women Older people Minority group membership except Asian americans Asian and Hispanic immigrants Low education and income 9 stressful and may not have the same resources Unmarried widowedgtseparated divorcedgt never marriedgtmarried a Depends on what kind of marriage you re in Consider ACA Obamacare and its effects on these groups 42915 955 PM I Primary Goal of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act A Theories of Etiology a Causation and effect b Germ enters the body sickness 0 Health behaviors 9 what behaviors you choose to partake in If you want to treat the illness you also have to treat what the individual is doing as well Exercise diet sleep Cause of illness rooted in unhealthy lifestyles risky health behaviors Treatment of these illnesses change risky health behaviors a Deals with the environment youre in b Do you have access to clean water What kinds of bacteria are you exposed to a Combination of germs lifestyle choices you make how you react to your environment a Cause of illness rooted in social inequality b Treatment of illness reduceeliminate social inequality Emphasis on upstream factors as opposed to downstream factors Version of social structural theory link and phelan b Any factor that provides access to resources c Resource knowledge money power prestige social connec ons cl SES raceethnicity e Causes have i Relationships with multiple risk factors ii Relationships with multiple disease outcomes iii Enduring association with negative health outcomes Lack of resources gtgtrisk factorsgtgtiness g When you focus downstream you blame the individual for health conditions Often it Is difficult to change a lifestyle without some risk inconveniences h Even if you eliminate lifestyle risk relationship between resources and illness should persist i Need to pay attention to what puts people at risk of risk j Real changes in health mean dealing with poverty first a Stressors9 morbidity mortality b Treatment eliminate or control exposure to stressors c Exposure to stress is a function of your location on the social structure d Stressors circumstances and experiences to which it is difficult to adjust thus can impose deleterious effects on emotions cognitions behavior physiological functioning and wellbeing pearlin and bierman 2013 i Stressors can affect individuals in many different ways ii Stress reactions possible consequences of stress exposure e Stressors9overtaxed coping abilities physicalemotional exhaustion9 death disorder disease and disability i Four major forms of traumas negative life events chronic strains daily hassles very rare extremely severe that are life threatening or potentially damaging to the psyche 0 Ex death of loved one victim of rape neglect abuse acute negative hjuchanges in your life that require major behavioral adjustments 0 Ex being divorced traffic accidents getting fired persistent or recurrent problems in a persons life that requires behavioral adjustment 0 Ex not being able to pay bills relationship problems mini negative events 0 Ex not being able to find a parking spot ALL FOUR FORMS OF STRESSORS HAVE EFFECTS ON BOTH PHYSICAL AND MENTAL HEALTH Groups with more negative events women minority group members unmarried low SES ii behavioral or cognitive attempts to manage specific situational demands which are perceived as taxing ones ability to adapt Can de problem focused or emotion focused or both Two most powerful coping resources high selfesteem and high sense of mastery over life More social ties significantly better physical and mental health Perceived emotional support predicts better physical and mental health You don t have to use that support but you have to believe its there if you need it Having and intimate confiding relationship better physical and mental health 42915 955 PM
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