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by: Amaris Mae
Amaris Mae
GPA 3.75
Africa: Problems and Promise

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These are the notes from March 24th on Refugees. Lecture notes are in black and assigned text reading notes are in blue.
Africa: Problems and Promise
Class Notes
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Popular in Africa: Problems and Promise

Popular in International Affairs

This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amaris Mae on Thursday April 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to IAFF 2093 at George Washington University taught by Shinn in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 128 views. For similar materials see Africa: Problems and Promise in International Affairs at George Washington University.


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Date Created: 04/30/15
News 3242015 Nigerian tycoon is funding the private sector by sponsoring entrepreneurial endeavors UN expects no new cases of Ebola by August Rwanda just passed full paid maternity leave Nile Dam Ethiopia Sudan and Egypt met to discuss Millennium challenge On Blue Nile Egypt believes it will create water problems in Egypt So want to ll the dam on a one time basis without affected Egypt Bombing of the Tunisian museum 20 people killed Many injured Two Tunisians were killed were trained in Libya ISIS has taken responsibility for the bombing But unclear if they were actually involved Top 5 security officials were red for the bombing UK of cially declared Libya a security threat to themselves Rebel group in the Central African Republic kidnapped a group and took them to Cameroon Unsure what rebel group is responsible Possibly for ransom 70 bodies found in northern Nigerian town Liberated from Boko Haram Form Chad and Niger Terrorist Isis cell put out of commission Son of a former Senegalese president was sentenced to prison in 6 years for corruption lnternallv Di5placed Persons Refugee Camps Over crowded Chao c quotTown likequot once settled and several years old New refugee camps are shambling and disorganized UNHCR not present Refugee move from the same reasons as an IDP but leave the borders of their own country Move for famine or violence Internally Displaced People leave their normal place of residence to escape famine or violence but remain in their own country Do not enjoy the same legal or institutional support that refugees receive UNHCR can on occasion take care of lDPs but not often No organization dedicated to just this Refugees and lDPS that have returned to their own country original home returnee Africa constituted 15 of the world39s population But it accounts for 25 of the World39s refugees In 2014 there were 13 million refugees world wide Asia accounted for 2x as many refugees as Africa Because of Syria mostly And Iraq Yemen will be another new contributor to refugees The three largest African refugee contributors Somalia 11 million refugees Sudan 650000 DRC 500000 All have internal con ict The three largest African receiving countries Kenia 500000 Somalia Etiopia 335000 Somalia Chad 300000 Sudan Older group In recent year Southern Africa has produced fewer refugees Less con ict Share of the goal refugee problem has been falling Due to con icts in the Middle East In 1994 Africa accounted for 50 of the world39s refugees Rwanda genocide Refugee numbers are declining IDP numbers are increasing African countries have the highest numbers of IDP 2014 Nigeria 33 million DRC 3 million Sudan 24 million Somalia 11 million African Union Convention on IDPS Kuala Convention Aimed at protecting and assisting Africa39s lDPs Has no meaning unless the African countries make a political commitment to enforce it Africa was seen as a continent that treated refugees fairly well Because of hospitability African Union Encouraged that countries help the refugees voluntarily to move home Cannot be forced out Improved legal standards for the treatment of refugee populations Number of refugees in the early years was manageable Not a severe economic burden on the host country Host countries used to be able to rely on international agencies like UNHCR to provide food shelter and healthcare for the refugee population But as the numbers increased the international community was less able to contribute Last 20 years Setbacks to traditional African hospitality Less committed to asylum for foreigners Now urge potential refugees to maintain in quotsafe zonesquot Not truly safe Easier to target Ex Hutu had a safe zone in Rwanda Number of refugees have increased in the last years And are not refugees of colonial struggle Less reluctant to accept them because they are less sympathetic African countries see more prosperous countries taking a step back and so wonder why poorer African states must contribute African states that contributed in the past are done quotEnough is enoughquot Donor countries have become less likely to pay for longterm refugee costs Some African states have experienced an economic downturn More dif cult to accommodate refugees Less of an issue now than it was in the 19905 Refugee Camps in Ethiopia Food Vocational training Educa on Facilities Facilities in the refugee camps were better than Ethiopia and upset the natives there UNHCR standards Refugees should be located as far from the border as possible Reduces tension at the border itself Not always possible Cannot force refugees to go home Although sometimes the situation the refugees ee to is not better than the one they ed Issues Returning refugees and IDP have legal insecurity Psychological trauma Physical loss No documentation Refugees in America 1 Must comply with the de nition of a refugee 2 Must be among those refugee groups determent by the president to be of special humanitarian concern 3 The refugee must otherwise be admissible under US law 4 They must not be rmly resettled in another country More people have arrived in America from subSaharan Africa now than did under slavery 50000 more annually Africa39s Refuges Pattern Problems and Policy Challenges quotHumanitarian pessimismquot The state of the world is in perpetual decline with life become progressively nastier brutish and short for ever larger numbers of people Ex DRC Rwanda Sierra Leone Ethiopia and Eritrea Patterns of Displacement in Africa 12 of the world39s population 28 of the world39s 115 million refugees And just under 50 of the world39s 20milion internally displaced persons Total number displaced in Africa 127 million And 2 million returnees Who have not been able to reintegrate in their country of origin Not al countries or surgeons of the continent are equally affected by the problems of refuges Southern part of the continent has been realty minor refugee hosting area Angola primary exception Lots of refugees in the 5 neighboring states of Cote d lvoire Guinea Guinea Bissau Liberia and Sierra Leone Since the 19905 Central Africa Eritrea in the north east to Angola l net south west Includes DRC Congo Brazzaville Burundi Ethiopia Kenya Rwanda Somalia Sudan Tanzania Uganda and Zambia Interlocking problems of war and lDPs While Africa continues to produce a disproportionate number of the world39s refugees in relating to its overall population the continents share of the global refugee problem had diminished 47 in 1994 28 in 1998 Movement of refuges had been a two way process Those moving out of their country for safety Those moving home Ex 20000 boys form southern Sudan who having initially been displaced within their own country were subsequently forced into Ethiopia then back to Sudan and eventually into Kenya Ex Angola Burundi DRC Liberia Rwanda and Sierra Leone Celine in refugees in Africa has been matched by a growth in the continent39s populate on of internally displaced persons From 5 million in the 905 to 95 million The Principle and Practice of Asylum In the 605 805 Africa established a largely welldeserved reputation as a continent which treated refugees in a relatively generous manner The OAU Refugee Convection of 1969 unambiguously stated that the repatriation of refugees to their country of reign should take place voluntarily These conditions no longer prevail Principle of asylum had support in the 605 and 705 declined in the 905 0 Used to be buttressed by international aid 0 They were all sympathetic having just become independent from colonial rule Now longer periods of con ict take economic toll During the last 1015 the ideological and material underpinning of Africa39s quottradition of hospital39 has been progressively dismantled At the beginning there were 1 million refugees Then 6 million Speed and scale of continent s refugee movement also spread to increase form 1980 onwards 1 lndustrialize states rather than those in Africa are taken the lead in eroding the right of asylum and undermine the principles of refugee protection When African countries close their border to refugees they justify their actions by referring to the precedents which have already been set in more prosperous parts of the world 2 Many African states have admitted large numbers of refugees in the past now feel that their generosity has been too quickly forgotten 3 Donors will no longer support longterm refugee assistance efforts 4 In the 605 and 705 they were relatively well place to cope with the in ux over the last 20 years low and negative rates of economic growth impeded this 5 African states increasingly drawn international attention not the negative environment impact of largescale refugee movement and population in countries of asylum a In reality the environment impact may not be as great as Africa governments claim 6 Perception that exiled populations constitute a threat to the social stability and political security a At the local level refugees are frequently associated with problems as crime bandit position alcoholism drugs There is a link between the process of democratization non one hand and the decline in refugee protection standards on the other Insecurity and the rule of law in refugee population areas Liberian refugees in Cote d lvoire have enjoyed a reasonably secure and peaceful existence since their arrives Angolan refugees to northwest Zambia are safe and secure Mozambicans found a genuine degree of safety in Malawi The refugee camps of Africa Rae becoming increasingly danger soup laces Refugeepopulated areas may be the target of direct military attacks Also subjected to threat so robbery Rape Conscription into militia forces Abduction for the purpose of ford marriage Arbitrary arrest and punishment by refugee community leaders and members of tell coal security force Violence between refugees and members of the14 local pupation Fighting between deans and subtribes armed conformation between refugees of different nannaHUes UNHCR has called for scrupulous respect for rather than a dismissal of the principles of international an African refugee law Refugee law has a dual purpose to protect the people who were forced to leave their own country And to protect a state39s national interests and address its own security concerns remember the refugee conventions were rati ed by states not by NGOs or the UNHCR 1 Ensuring refugee protection Forms of coercive and military action hurt international refugee law and destabilize the countries of asylum and of origin Denial of effective protection not refugee and returnees may well serve the purposes of extremist militant and insurgent groups 2 Separating refugees from other exile Some people cannot be refugees Those who have committed a crime against peace a war crime or a crime against humanity People who have committed serious nonpolitical crimes before entering another country People who have been guilty of acts which are contrary to he purpose and principals of the UN Sometimes not possible to separate these people Ex Great Lakes region of Africa These people should be separated into internationally monitored facilities Pending any decision on their future Where the national authorities lack the capacity to d such deploy integration or regional military and civil political forces Refugee camps should be far form the international border Not always possible to do 3 Countering intimidation and disinformation Granting of asylum should not be construed as an unfriendly act by the country of asylum towed hot country of origin Invisiny jeopardies when exiled population engage in activities which are Cleary designed to destabilize the country from which they have ed Host government the internal media and others could mount information Nan education initiatives to ensure that refugees have access to objective information about their rights their obligation and the situation within their country of origin Countries of asylum would be allowed to halt the dissemination of propaganda which is intended to provoke hatred and violence Ensure that all relied distribution systems are organized in such a way as to prevent them from falling under the control of exiles 4 Establishing the rule of law in refugeepopulated areas It enhances the protection of refugees Reinforce she security of the local population Contribute to the task of ensuring that refugee camps are not sued for subversive purposes Helps establish an environment in which refugees can freely choose whether or not to repatriate 9 UNHCR should secure more funds to support the judicial system 9 Re nance local police and security forces 9 Provide technical support in form of vehicles communications equipment of ce supplies and uniforms Reintegration of Displaced Populations More than 5 million refugees Africa are known to have repatriates nice the early 19905 Number of IDPs who return home is higher possibly twice that gure Voluntary return is vital Upholds the rights of refugees Refuges who return freely can play an important part in the recovery of the country Meaningful and moving experience of return Validates the postcon ict political order Important contribution not the economic reverie of wartorn societies Ex Eritrean town of Alebu Problems of repatriation Physical insecurity Rule of law may not exist Banditry and violent crime are re Demobilized soldiers prey upon civilians Psychosocial insecurity PTSD May not be welcomed back by all Legal insecurity May not have proof of nationality Lack of official documentation Do not have rights to property they left behind Material insecurity Rarefy possess resources Must survive in an environment that has been laid waste by armed con ict Marketing and banking system has disintegrated Shops warehoused bridges and other elements of the infrastructure have been deliberately destroyed Agricultural land and irrigation systems have fallen into disuse Africa Progress Report UNHCR Working Environment Projected number of people of concern in Africa in 215 are expected to decrease slightly From 151 million to 149 million Due to repatriation resettlement and other durable solutions Central African Republic and South human are likely to remain in peril 3 million refugees having found exile in safety In Southern Africa an incase in mixed migratory movement has also led to growing hostility towards refugees Putting pressure on asylum and reaction space 1 million Somali refugees Return of lvorian refugees form neighboring countries since 2011 Between January 2013 and June 2014 some 26 00 refugees returned Repatriation operation had to be suspended because of the spread of Ebola Mali39s population remains displaced internal and externally About 267000 people Insurgency in the federal sates of Adamawa Boron and Kobe in northeastern Nigeria provoked displacement of more people 650000 IDP 70000 take refuge in Cameroon chad and Niger Strategy Maintain protective space Collaborating with government and regional units Combating secular and gender based violence Improving camp security Organizing community watch groups Meeting Basic Needs Large portion of the UNHCR39s budget Reliable food supply Pursuing durable solutions DRC tactic will be implement in Central Africa and the Great Lakes sub region 50000 Congolese Tanzania the UNHCR will strengthen its support for integration of more than 162000 Burundi refugees Norm of Mali remain generaIIy insecure and unpredictable Not yet conducive for the promotion of voluntary repatriation Benin and Ghana working with the Togolese refugees Issued permits for a 10year period for refugees from Chad the DRC Rwanda and Togo Addressing Statelessness Support the modernization not the civil registration process Imitate awareness rains campaign to highlight the important of children registration n To ensure children39s access to basic human rights including education and health care In Sudan people with mixed Sudanese and South Sudanese parentage are at risk of stateIiness Building Partnership Partnerships with governments NGOs civil society and international organization ChaHenges Access to people of concern is limited by insecurity impassable roads and heavy rains Refoulement denial of asylum Wake national legal and instigation mechanism in the protection of refuges Nonenjoyment by refugees of basic rights Access 5 to basic services including health and education SGBV Inability to attain selfsuf ciency and build IiveIihoods Dif culty to ensure the sustainably of return and reintegration Pressure on coasters hosting exceptionally high numbers of refugees UNHCR has 25 billion dollars programs Since 2009 has spent 817 million and needs have more than tripled


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