Tolerance and Tension
Tolerance and Tension IAFF 2093
Popular in Africa: Problems and Promise
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amaris Mae on Thursday April 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to IAFF 2093 at George Washington University taught by Shinn in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 105 views. For similar materials see Africa: Problems and Promise in International Affairs at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 04/30/15
Tolerance and Tension Traditional African Religions Belief in a supreme being Believe in a spirit or divinities Life after death Religious personnel Witchcraft and magic Most don39t have a sacred text Used oral tradition Because written language wasn t established at the founding of these religions Belief in goad appears to be universal Although god is seen in various forms Nature number functions of god differ throughout Africa Worship god through ancestors Sorceress are male witches female Magic is normally used to protect people in family from witches Can be used to harm or kill with curses Egypt was the rst country to accept Christie y Coptic Church Muslim conquered in the 7th century Christianity came to Ethiopia in the 4th century Portuguese brought Christianity with them to the West Coast in 15th century Translation of bible allowed African to read and interpret bibles for themselves Indigenous churches were then established Zionist churches grew as well as evangelist church Growth of protestant churches by 19 Arab rule was less oppressive than Byzantine rule Gradual lslamization of North Africa through conquest Easter African merchants persona merchant and Arab merchants spread lslam Mobilized resistance to European rule Islam was found to be compatible with circumcision spirits polygamy etc Tolerant in turning customary law to Islamic law Marginal young poor universe students grieve towards fundamentalism Conversion to Islam and Christianity are continuing Preserving trident beliefs with the new religion and Muslim less than 25 in Sub Saharan African in 1900 now they are the majority Around 95 Very little conversion between the faiths Christians remain Christian Muslims remain Muslim Exception is Uganda Large majority interpret the literal truth of their religious scriptures Christens and Muslims favor democracy but they also favor religious law Will allow rulers and judges to base their decision on personal religion Also want the law to be based on their sacred text Tolerance and Tension Islam and Christianity Pew Forum As of 1900 Muslims and Christians were relatively small minorities in the region Vast majority of people in African practiced traditional religions Since then however Muslims living between the Sahara Desert and the Cape of Good Hope has increased more than 20 fold From 11 million to 234 million Number of Christians has grown 70 fold 7 million to 470 million Northern Africa is heavily Muslim And southern Africa is heavily Christian Great meeting place is in the middle a 4000 mile swatch from Somalia in the east to Senegal in the West Site of AlQaeda39s rst major terrorist strike Bombing of the US embassies in Keya and Tanzanian Ian 1998 More recently of thionic an secretariat bloodshed in Nigeria In subSaehan Africa religious leaders and movement are a major force in civil society and a key provider of relieve and development for the needy Executive summary The vast majority of people in subsaran Africa nations are deploy committed to the practices and more tense of one or the other of the world39s two largest religions Charismatic and Islam Large majority39s say they belong to toe of these faiths As opposed to Europe and the US where few are religious af liated Traditional African religious beliefs and practices have not disappeared Rather they coexist with Islam and Christianity Belief in witchcraft evil spirits sacri ces to ancestors traditional regions hears reincarnating and other elements of traditional African religions Christianity and Islam also exist with one another Few see evidence of widespread antiMuslim or antiChristian hostility Although they acknowledge they know relatively little auto each other39s faith 40 of Africa Christina condor Muslims to be violent Muslims are signi cantly more positive in their assessment of Christen Signi cant gaps in the degree of support among Christina and Muslims for democracy Most subshrank Africans Regardless of faith say they favor democracy However substantial backing among Muslims and Christians alike for a government based on either the bible or sharia law And consider sport among Muslims for the imposition of sever punishments Such as stoning people who commit adultery 25000 face to face interviews 60anguages 19 subSaharan African nations Form December 2008 to April 2009 Other Findings Africans general rank unemployment crime and corruption as bigger problems than religious con ict Except 6 in 10 Nigerians and Rwandans Degree of concern about religions tracks closely with the degree of concern about ethnic con ict in many countries Many African are concern about religious extremism Including in their own fate h Muslims say they are more concern about sulci extremism than about Christian extremist m And Christin in 4 counters say they are more concerned about Christin extremism than about Muslim extremism Neither certainty nor Islam is growing signi cant yin subSaharan Africa at the expend of the other Half of al christen say Jesus will return in their lifetime 30 of Muslims expect to live to see the reestablishment of the caliphate 20 say violence against civilians in defense of one s religion is justi ed In most countries at least half of Muslims say that women should not have the right to decide whether to wear a veil saying instead that the decision should be up to society as a whole Circumcision of girls is highest in the predominantly Muslim countries of Mali and Djibouti But more common among Christians than Muslims in Uganda Most say western music movies and television have harmed morality yin their nation Yet they also like western entertainment Optimistic that their lives will change for the better Adherence or Islam and Christianity y Most believe in one god and in heaven and hell Also believe in the literal truth of their scriptures Attend services at least once a week Pray every day Fast during holy periods Or give alms 910 say religion is very important in their lives Persistence of Traditional African religious practices In Tanzania Mali Senegal and South Africa more than half the people believe that sacri ces to ancestors or sprites can protect them from harm Believe in the protective power ofjuju Charms or amulets Most people consult traditional religious healers when someone in their household is sick Sizeable ministries in several countries keep sacred objects such as animal skins and skulls in their homes And participate in ceremonies to honor their ancestors African religions have no formal creeds or sacred texts Find expression in oral tradition myths rituals festivals shrines art and symbols Primary role is to provide for human wellbeginning the present As opposed to offering salvation in a future world Overall characterize by a belief in a supreme being who created and ordered the owl but is often expiries as distant or unavailable Lesser divinities or spirits how are more accessible are sometime believed to act as intermediaries Lapsed social responsibilities or violations of taboos are widely believed to result in hardship suffering and illness for individuals Must e countered with ritual acts to reestablish order harmony and well being Tolerance but also Tensions Muslims generally say Christian are tolerant honest and respect If women Christina say Muslims are honest devout and respectful of women Sizeable majorities in ever country surveyed say that people of different faiths are very free to practice their religion n And most add that this is a good thing rather than a bad thing Christians are less positive in their views of Muslims than Muslims are of Christians 70 in Chad think of Muslims as violent 20 in Guinea Bissau think of Muslims as violent People in most countries surveyed especial Christians tend to view the two faiths as very different rather than as having a lot in common In Toscana and Zambia religious con ict as a very big problem And 58 say so in Nigeria and Rwanda Support for Both Democracy and Religious Law Strong support for democracy Not much variance between Christians and Muslims on this Strong backing for basic civil law on sacred texts May simply re ect their importance of religion in Africa A substantial ministry of Christian favor making the bible the of cial law of the land Whereas large numbers of Muslims say they would like to enshrine sharia law Majorities soft Muslims in near y al outcries support allowing leaders and urges to use their religious believes when deicing family and property disputes As do sizeable minorities 30 or more of Christians 13 or more of Muslims in seven countries support the death penalty for those who leave Islam The End of Christianity and Muslim Expansion While expanding they are not doing so as rapidly as in the past Most people have already committed to Christianity or Islam Smaller pool of converts Neither Christianity or Islam are growing at the expense of heather Except Uganda 13 of people raised Muslim now describe themselves as Christian Intense Religious Experiences and the In uence of Pentecostalism Many christens and Muslims experiences their faith in a very intense immediate and personal way 310 of people say they have experienced a divine healing witnessed the diving being driven out of person or received a direct revelation from God Also characteristic of African reigns Within Christianity these kinds of experiences are associated with Pentecostalism Emphasized such gifts other holy spits such as peaking in tongues giving or interpreting prophecy receiving direct revelations form God exorcising evil and healing through pare 14 of all christen in Ethiopia Ghana Liberia and Niger now belong or Pentecostal denominations As do 110 of Christina in other countries Morality and Culture Large majorities believe it is necessary to believe in God in order or be moral and have good values Western in uences are seen as demoralizing And people are more inclined to say that there is not a con ict between being a devout religious person living in modern society than to say there is con ict Strong opposition to homosexual behavior Strong opposition to abortion Strong opposition to prestigious and sex between unmarried people Muslims are more inclined to approve of polygamy Optimist and Progress Unemployment is cited as a major problem More than half say they are dissatis ed with the way things are going in their country At least 30 in every country said there have been items in the last year they could not buy food for their family Yet many say life has improved in the last 5 years
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