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by: Amaris Mae
Amaris Mae
GPA 3.75
Africa: Problems and Promise

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These are the notes on Education Policy in Africa. Lecture notes are in black and assigned text readings are in blue!
Africa: Problems and Promise
Class Notes
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Popular in International Affairs

This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amaris Mae on Thursday April 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to IAFF 2093 at George Washington University taught by Shinn in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 109 views. For similar materials see Africa: Problems and Promise in International Affairs at George Washington University.


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Date Created: 04/30/15
Education in Africa Missionary education was the foremost education program in Africa Without it there wouldn39t have been education for African populating Modeled after European schools Re ected little African content Few Africans reached any form of formal education at any level Without colonial power Schools established by the colonial authorities used an authoritarian model brought from Europe Teacher exercised unquestioned authority New governments in Africa launched massive education expansion after 19605 Or after the date of independence Percentage of students in school has increased dramatically But quality has fallen Speci cally in the last decade or two Knowledge is certain factual and objective Not contentious Not subject to change in interpretation Little discussion and dialogue Two factors have contributed to authoritarian environment 1 Colonial legacy 2 Traditional African features More education less control for an authoritarian ruler More demand for skilled workers rather than educated laborers Most Africans do not go to secondary school Highest population growth rate And the fastest urban growth rate Almost 40 of adult Africans cannot read or write 30 of young people Children often do not receive an education in con ict areas Africanization of education Education is the largest chunk of African government budgets Better government education policies are improving the situation Change in the curriculum From content that re ected the world view of colonial powers To building African nationalism and identity But may not know a lot about neighboring countries Started using local languages Begin with the vernacular And then switch to the colonial language African countries have spent more time giving vocational education Split education between textbooks and workshops or agriculture More spending on primary education as opposed to secondary or tertiary education Challenge now to reform African education so it can deal with technological changes and globalization 1 Prioritization of where money is spent a And where it is needed in education b ie notjust on expanding the program but also on improving quality c training teachers d higher salaries to retain teachers 2 local jurisdiction never education 3 new information technology a technology is not distrusted evenly b higher institution suffer greatly y from this i could travel out of state for better facilities 4 more emphasis on science engineering and medicine 5 more resourced for universe research in STEM Higher Education Number of people enrolled has sincerest signi cantly Perhaps too much Universities cannot accommodate the amount of students they have Still has lowest number of people enrolled in the world Decrease in government spending and more enrollment D overcrowding Nationalism got in the way of severing ties with European universities Long term education implication negative Fewer ties with France especially in northern Africa Brain drain 120 00 students studying abroad More than 15 other continents total higher education population University of Cairo is the most prestigious of Africa Education in Africa Since Independence CC Wolhuter Education has laid claim to the biggest single share of the public budgets of most African states and has occupied a central place in national development programmers By the early 1980s international aid to education in SubSaharan Africa equal d15 of domestic public expenditure on education Bank lending to education projects in Africa between 1992 1997 averages 27706 million annually 1960 Launch Pad Skeleton imported Education system stretched over vast untallied eld Base of formal school system in aria was laid by nineteenth century missionaries Modelled after European schools Colonial education became an adapted secular form of missionary education Indigenous populations were educated outside the context of their own cultures and environment Also served colonial interests Trained locals to be official tools of the government Popular social demand for education increases towards the end of the colonial era Education was seen to forge national unity On the eve of 1960 Africa had an adult literacy rate of 9 But primary and secondary enrollment rates of 44 and 5 Ready for an education revolution 1961 Addis Ababa Charting a Course for Africa39s Educational Development Ministers of Education of the 36 independent countries met in Addis Ababa in 1961 Outline of a plan for Educational Development in Africa Addis Ababa Plan Set the goal of universal primary education rate 28 Secondary 2 and Tertiary Duran 1998 Addis Ababa was rst in a series of seven MINEDAF Themes expansion of educational opportunities Eradication of adult illiteracy Africanisation of curricula Linking education with development Increasing teacher training capacity In Nairobi it was stated that the Africanisation of education also entails the replacing by the excolonial language as the medium of instruction in schools with indigenous languages Since the conference in Dakar there has been a decline in education quality Ex in 1988 Cote d lvoire used 46 of their budget on education Multiple shift schooling was introduced in high population density areas As was y of obviating the problems of a shortage of school building and the undersoppy f quali ed teaching Doubleshit schoolings establishing inter alia Burundi Egypt Zimbabwe and Botswana Zambia and Mozambique even instated triple shift school The Undug projection Kenya NGO targets destitute street children in urban areas and provides them education Three literacy approaches 1 Project approach small scale 2 Program approach nationwide but under bureaucratic control 3 Campaign big scale and involving high political fervor and popular mobilization a Ex Somali urban literacy campaign 1973 Distance Education Hampered by a hostage of teachers and school buildings in tier pursuit of loft expansion targets lncasing nancial constraints Africanisation of Curricula Knowledge and attitudes that built nationalism African identity An application of African history culture and environment 3 major continent wide initiations 1 African Mathematica program 1963 2 Africa primary Science Programmed 1965 3 African Social Studies Programmed Most notable result was the institution of the subject Social Studies Arabic became the medium of instruction in Northern Africa Not in SubSaharan Africa Examination Most states have introduced vocational subjects in the curricula Zimbabwe made them obligator for all pupils Introduction of polytechnic education Spend part of the day on farmsin work shops Turning of schools into production units Ex Benin in 1971 National Youth Community Services Schemes Malawi Ghana Botswana and Nigeria Generally not successful Teacher Training Traditional modes of teacher training could not supply the quantity needed Aloes a lot of unquali ed teacher inhere tied at independence Two new types 1 Comparative Education literature a In Tanzania b To train primary school graduates as primary school teachers 2 ZINTEC scheme a Slight variation on the Tainan model Community Initiatives Haram beeschool movement in Kenya Selfhelp schools Cater more than half of Kenya s secondary school population Ghana Tanzania Malawi Zambia Zimbabwe Nigeria Mali GuineaBissau Botswanan and Swaziland Al have had improvement in education thanks to community initiatives Progress and Problems The ideal of universal primary education is eluding Africa Secondary and tertiary enrollments have slightly exceeded targets Africanisation has a long way to go In francophone West Africa a book form the 19405 was being used in the 19805 Only 70 some percent of teachers are quali ed Apart from Somalia no progress had been made with the development of Africa languages as a medium of instruction at secondary school Reforming African Education for the 21st Century 25 of all children in 1960 were educated to 60 in 1999 UNESCO reports that 40 million primary school la get children in subSaharan Africa have received no education Dynamic growth of quantity has been at the expense of quality and relevance Teacher salaries have fallen to desperately low levels Cuts combined with economic crises have contributed to low education standards SubSaharan Africa deals with a different set of problems Dif culty in providing minimum basic education for a rapidly growing primary school population Development of skills adequate for improving standards living in both rural and urban areas Lack of global technology Lower standard of living Limited Access Demand for education remains high Promise of guaranteed employment for university graduates followed by any African government until the economic collapse of hte805 In the past 3 decade39s African primary school age children have focused on expanding access to education Some 40 million are out of school At least 20 million are in school Higher Dropout Rates Number of pupils dropping out before grade 5 has been on the incise Pyramid structure As increased demand came governments had to limit the in ux Allowed a large number of pupils to enter primary school Then get progressively restrictive 9 Examination system isn39t a tool for measuring progress but a tool for rationing limited space Low Quality Education Sever lack of tools Technology Instructional materials and textbook Poorly trained and unquali ed teacher Curricula and syllabi not closely linked to performance standards and measures of outcome Until recently methods of improvement have been focus on teacher training and reducing studenttoteacher talon However the system has fallen short Due to a shortage of train teaches and low rotation rations because of low salaries Recommends a more ef cient use of existing resources A disproportionate amount no public funding gates to tertiary education rather than primary education Which would bene t the poor Barely 4 of university age people enter tertiary education IMF and World Bank misguided policies of the 805 High unemployment among graduates Lots of misperception about wellpaying jobs Intel modern sector for university students 250000 schoolleavers 40000 jobs In equable opportunities between boys and girls What American capital had done in Western Europe Marshall Plan could be replicated in Africa if Africans invested more in the development of their human resources and if additional foreign capital was channeled into these countries for education purposes International organizations and foundations responded to this perceived need by fungi educational training programs 9 Accounts for the rapid expansions of education opportunities 0 But also the lack quality Predominant themes of education 1 Must foster a sense of nationhood and national unity 2 The skills and knowledge required for national development 9 Money went to expansion only Education has been previously basso n race So the African independent countries had to expand to counter this Ex in 1963 right after independence 30 of all secondary schools were located in the urban areas and catered other European and Asian communities Lack of number of quali ed African to modernize the enemy and run the affairs of the new states at the time of independence 19701980 emphasis on education and employment Since the 1970s education was driven by political considerations Rather than decision to improve the quality of education Or streamline management Or contain costs Measures take not deal with the problem of graduate unemployment in Africa have concentrated on curriculum changes and the expansion of instigation to provide technical and agricultural education quotWhite collar attitude was one of the main causes of graduate unemployment Not many private sector jobs Mostly agrarian Promoted practicaloriented training Village polytechnic to equip primaryschool leavers with simple practical skills Run by churches and NGOs Wanted to increase rural income and lower the rate of ruraltourban migration HOWEVER rather than truly modifying the colonial system it simply consolidated it They then geared secondary education towards technical jobs Which became scares So they became to empathize the important of techno land vocation education for selfemployment in the informal sector Post1980 reform the ef cient approach Economic deterioration no the 198s forced many African governments to sign up to structural adjustment programmers with the IMF and World Bank Introduction of user fees have done more to undermine the Africa education system than the exclusionary policy practiced by colonial powers It should be a priority of African governments to invest in Hua capital across the board Main concern should be if the funds are being used ef ciently Priorities and Strategies for Education Knowledgeinformation divide is becoming more apparent in the speci c case of SubSaharan Africa New strategy of technological promotion must be based on the interplay of academia government and industry Steps 1 Establishing better regulator frameworks and administrative mechanisms 2 Delineating more sharply responsibilities among different levels of government 3 Ensuring that decentralization does not lead to inequitable distribution of resources 4 Making more ef cient use of existing human and nical resources 5 Improving capacities for managing diversity 6 Integrating programs within education and strengthening their convergence with those of other sectors especially health labor and social welfare 7 Proving training for school leaders and other educational personnel 8 Ensuring gender equality Should invest in basic education technical and vocation training science and technology and agricultural research and development Fees loans taxes and other means should be used to nance upper secondary yarn higher education Achievement standards must be set and outcomes monitored Gendergap Once enrolled in university women are more likely to drop out than men And less women attend tertiary level school than men Academic achievement is below that of gobs Few women opt for mathematics and science related elds of study Lack of role models Negative attitudes on the part of teachers Gender streaming is pervasive in many African universities Women being overrepresented in humanities and ovation schools commercial secretarial triaging Af rmative action programs should be explored in the future Knowledge production through sharing Regional approach to knowledge production NGOs in research encourage education Hire the graduates who then do work and research for the company on the side Ex African Economic Research Consortium Africa39s Storied Colleges Jammed and Crumbling Dorms are overcrowded 6 in a room built for 2 60000 people in a university built for 5000 70 fail their rst or second year exams at the university Too many students in the room Can39t hear the professor quotInternational development policies that for decades have favored basic education over higher learning vent as a population explosion propels more young people than ever toward the already strained institutionsquot Universities across have become hotbeds of decent Dangerous intersection of optics and crime Student union leaders played large role in stirring up xenophobia that led to civil war In Nigeria elite schools are overrun by violent criminal gang Professors want to go abroad Better salary Better technology Less students IMF and World Bank offered economic reforms Bitter cocktail that included currency evaluation opening of markets and privations Higher education was on the low list of priorities Student unions play a big role in elections Leaders are fearful of widespread discontent among the educated youth


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