Reagan and the End of the Cold War
Reagan and the End of the Cold War HIST 2340W
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Reagan and the End of the Cold War Reagan Becomes president in 1981 Not as much experience with foreign policy y Was a governor of California But had clear goals on foreign policy Wanted to assert the traditional role of the US Return to ideological confrontation Peace through strength Very important part of the Reagan administration s discourse quotBear in the woods adquot Abandon nuclear arms limitation Basically throw out everything Nixon Kissinger and Ford had done Believed America s capacity to be endless And knew that Russia would collapse which was true Reagan believes the Soviet system will collapse and transform And the US will ful ll its mission to convert its adversary Star Wars Speech SDI idea Was not taken seriously But then Reagan won in 1984 And then he decides to proceed with star wars Mikhail Gorbachev Perestroika economic liberalization Glasnost policies openness Believed that ideological differences would exist But would have to be subordinate to world peace So he launches an international Good Will Tour Two Historic Summit Reykyajiv Iceland Reduction in strategic arms by Russia But only if Regan would give up SDI Not many concrete results Washington DC INF Treaty Eliminates Soviet and American intermediate range missiles in Europe MARKS THE END OF THE COLD WAR George P Schultz had to convince 1 They were sincere 2 Soviet union had to change if it was going to survive a The Soviets were only a military power 3 The soviet union had become the kind of empire it had south to overthrow Reagan Doctrine Nicaragua Somoza was overthrown in 1979 by Sandinistas Wanted to weaken the economic grip of the US in their country Reagan supported the Contras Resisted and wanted to overthrow the Sandinistas It was the duty of the US to support any freedom ghters anywhere In order to get around congress he sold arms to Iran and then funneled that money to the contras Blew up in his face Oliver North plead the Fifth and somehow became aero Afghanistan Operation Cyclone 19791987 As much as 630 million per year provided to the Mujahedeen in Afghanistan by CIA Reagan wanted support for militant lslamic groups favored by Pakistan instead of moderate opponents of the regime Massive amounts of aid to the Mujahedeen Sot training handled by Pakistan interservice intelligence Asia The fall of Marcos Reagan had supported right wing authoritarian government 5 Because they were strongly anticommunist The Carter administration had criticized them But Reagan in uenced byJean KirkPatrick wanted to build up support for them again Support of Marcos in the Philippines Benin Aquino Mobilized popular sentiment against the Marcos regime Suddenly assonated in 1983 Does not strengthen Marcos Actually inspires the opposition more 1984 American officials begin looking for ways to remove Marcos from power But Reagan only agrees to modest sanctions 1986 fraudulent election in Philippines leads Reagan to change his attitude Marcos loses power but is allowed into the US Democracy in South Korea Reagan39s Support for Chun Doo Hwan Even though he was a dictator With economic advisors Economic advisors pushed South Korea towards economic liberalization Massive protests in 1987 when Chun appoints Roh Tae Woo as successor Support for the authoritarian regime begins to falter Gaston Sigur 1987 Encourages democratization in South Korea Appointed a special US envoy in the midst of the massive protests Tell Chun that the US withdraws support Allows for democratic elections Roh Taw Woo wins the election fair and square Evil Empire Speech Reverend clergy all Senator Hawkins distinguished members of the Florida congressional delegation and all of you I can39t tell you how you have warmed my heart with your welcome I39m delighted to be here today Those of you in the National Association of Evangelicals are known for your spiritual and humanitarian work And I would be especially remiss if I didn39t discharge right now one personal debt of gratitude Thank you for your prayers Nancy and I have felt their presence many times in many ways And believe me for us they39ve made all the difference The other day in the East Room of the White House at a meeting there someone asked me whether I was aware of all the people out there who were praying for the President And I had to say quotYes I am I39ve felt it I believe in antirecessionary prayerquot But I couldn39t help but say to that questioner after he39d asked the question that or at least say to them that if sometimes when he was praying he got a busy signal it was just me in there ahead of him Laughter I think I understand how Abraham Lincoln felt when he said quotI have been driven many times to my knees by the overwhelming conviction that I had nowhere else to golll From the joy and the good feeling of this conference I go to a political reception Laughter Now I don39t know why but that bit of scheduling reminds me of a story laughter which I39ll share with you An evangelical minister and a politician arrived at Heaven39s gate one day together And St Peter after doing all the necessary formalities took them in hand to show them where their quarters would be And he took them to a small single room with a bed a chair and a table and said this was for the clergyman And the politician was a little worried about what might be in store for him And he couldn39t believe it then when St Peter stopped in front of a beautiful mansion with lovely grounds many servants and told him that these would be his quarters And he couldn39t help but ask he said quotBut wait how there39s something wrong how do get this mansion while that good and holy man only gets a single roomquot And St Peter said quotYou have to understand how things are up here We39ve got thousands and thousands of clergy You39re the rst politician who ever made itquot Laughter But I don39t want to contribute to a stereotype Laughter So I tell you there are a great many Godfearing dedicated noble men and women in public life present company included And yes we need your help to keep us ever mindful of the ideas and the principles that brought us into the public arena in the rst place The basis of those ideals and principles is a commitment to freedom and personal liberty that itself is grounded in the much deeper realization that freedom prospers only where the blessings of God are avidly sought and humbly accepted The American experiment in democracy rests on this insight lts discovery was the great triumph of our Founding Fathers voiced by William Penn when he said quotIf we will not be governed by God we must be governed by tyrantsquot Explaining the inalienable rights of men Jefferson said quotThe God who gave us life gave us liberty at the same timequot And it was George Washington And nally that shrewdest of all observers of American democracy Alexis de Tocqueville put it eloquently after he had gone on a search for the secret of America39s greatness and genius and he said quotNot until I went into the churches of America and heard her pulpits Only through your work and prayers and those of millions of others can we hope to survive this perilous century and keep alive this experiment in liberty this last best hope of man Reagan is a strong believer of the steeple on the hill ideology Our morality and our religion The churches of America Appealing to traditional American ideals I want you to know that this administration is motivated by a political philosophy that sees the greatness of America in you her people and in your families churches neighborhoods communities the institutions that foster and nourish values like concern for others and respect for the rule of law under God Now I don39t have to tell you that this puts us in opposition to or at least out of step with a prevailing attitude of many who have turned to a modernday secularism discarding the tried and timetested values upon which our very civilization is based No matter how well intentioned their value system is radically different from that of most Americans And while they proclaim that they39re freeing us from superstitions of the past they39ve taken upon themselves the job of superintending us by government rule and regulation Sometimes their voices are louder than ours but they are not yet a majority An example of that vocal superiority is evident in a controversy now going on in Washington And since I39m involved I39ve been waiting to hear from the parents of young America How far are they willing to go in giving to government their prerogatives as parents Let me state the case as brie y and simply as I can An organization of citizens sincerely motivated and deeply concerned about the increase in illegitimate births and abortions involving girls well below the age of consent sometime ago established a nationwide network of clinics to offer help to these girls and hopefully alleviate this situation Now again let me say I do not fault their intent However in their wellintentioned effort these clinics have decided to provide advice and birth control drugs and devices to underage girls without the knowledge of their parents For some years now the federal government has helped with funds to subsidize these clinics In providing for this the Congress decreed that every effort would be made to maximize parental participation Nevertheless the drugs and devices are prescribed without getting parental consent or giving noti cation after they39ve done so Girls termed quotsexually activequot and that has replaced the word quotpromiscuousquot are given this help in order to prevent illegitimate birth or abortion Well we have ordered clinics receiving federal funds to notify the parents such help has been given One of the nation39s leading newspapers has created the term quotsqueal rulequot in editorializing against us for doing this and we39re being criticized for violating the privacy of young people Ajudge has recently granted an injunction against an enforcement of our rule I39ve watched TV panel shows discuss this issue seen columnists ponti cating on our error but no one seems to mention morality as playing a part in the subject of sex Is all ofjudeoChristian tradition wrong Are we to believe that something so sacred can be looked upon as a purely physical thing with no potential for emotional and psychological harm And isn39t it the parents39 right to give counsel and advice to keep their children from making mistakes that may affect their entire lives Many of us in government would like to know what parents think about this intrusion in their family by government We39re going to ght in the courts The right of parents and the rights of family take precedence over those of Washingtonbased bureaucrats and social engineers But the ght against parental noti cation is really only one example of many attempts to water down traditional values and even abrogate the original terms of American democracy Freedom prospers when religion is vibrant and the rule of law under God is acknowledged When our Founding Fathers passed the First Amendment they sought to protect churches from government interference They never intended to construct a wall of hostility between government and the concept of religious belief itself The evidence of this permeates our history and our government The Declaration of Independence mentions the Supreme Being no less than four times quotIn God We Trustquot is engraved on our coinage The Supreme Court opens its proceedings with a religious invocation And the members of Congress open their sessions with a prayer I just happen to believe the schoolchildren of the United States are entitled to the same privileges as Supreme Courtjustices and Congressmen Last year I sent the Congress a constitutional amendment to restore prayer to public schools Already this session there39s growing bipartisan support for the amendment and lam calling on the Congress to act speedily to pass it and to let our children pray Perhaps some of you read recently about the Lubbock school case where a judge actually ruled that it was unconstitutional for a school district to give equal treatment to religious and nonreligious student groups even when the group meetings were being held during the students39 own time The First Amendment never intended to require government to discriminate against religious speech Senators Denton and Hat eld have proposed legislation in the Congress on the whole question of prohibiting discrimination against religious forms of student speech Such legislation could go far to restore freedom of religious speech for public school students And I hope the Congress considers these bills quickly And with your help I think it39s possible we could also get the constitutional amendment through the Congress this year More than a decade ago a Supreme Court decision literally wiped off the books of 50 States statutes protecting the rights of unborn children Abortion on demand now takes the lives of up to one and a half million unborn children a year Human life legislation ending this tragedy will some day pass the Congress and you and I must never rest until it does Unless and until it can be proven that the unborn child is not a living entity then its right to life liberty and the pursuit of happiness must be protected You may remember that when abortion on demand began many and indeed I39m sure many of you warned that the practice would lead to a decline in respect for human life that the philosophical premises used to justify abortion on demand would ultimately be used to justify other attacks on the sacredness of human life infanticide or mercy killing Tragically enough those warnings proved all too true Only last year a court permitted the death by starvation of a handicapped infant l have directed the Health and Human Services Department to make clear to every health care facility in the United States that the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 protects all handicapped persons against discrimination based on handicaps including infants And we have taken the further step of requiring that each and every recipient of Federal funds who provides health care services to infants must post and keep posted in a conspicuous place a notice stating that quotdiscriminatory failure to feed and care for handicapped infants in this facility is prohibited by Federal lawquot It also lists a 24hour tollfree number so that nurses and others may report violations in time to save the infant39s life In addition recent legislation introduced in the Congress by Representative Henry Hyde of Illinois not only increases restrictions on publicly nanced abortions it also addresses this whole problem of infanticide I urge the Congress to begin hearings and to adopt legislation that will protect the right of life to all children including the disabled or handicapped Now I39m sure that you must get discouraged at times but you39ve done better than you know perhaps There39s a great spiritual awakening in America a renewal of the traditional values that have been the bedrock of America39s goodness and greatness One recent survey by a Washingtonbased research council concluded that Americans were far more religious than the people of other nations 95 percent of those surveyed expressed a belief in God and a huge majority believed the Ten Commandments had real meaning in their lives And another study has found that an overwhelming majority of Americans disapprove of adultery teenage sex pornography abortion and hard drugs And this same study showed a deep reverence for the importance of family ties and religious belief I think the items that we39ve discussed here today must be a key part of the Nation39s political agenda For the rst time the Congress is openly and seriously debating and dealing with the prayer and abortion issues and that39s enormous progress right there I repeat America is in the midst of a spiritual awakening and a moral renewal And with your Biblical keynote I say today quotYes let justice roll on like a river righteousness like a neverfailing stream quotNow obviously much of this new political and social consensus I39ve talked about is based on a positive view of American history one that takes pride in our country39s accomplishments and record But we must never forget that no government schemes are going to perfect man We know that living in this world means dealing with what philosophers would call the phenomenology of evil or as theologians would put it the doctrine of sin There is sin and evil in the world and we39re enjoined by Scripture and the Lord jesus to oppose it with all our might Our nation too has a legacy of evil with which it must deal The glory of this land has been its capacity for transcending the moral evils of our past For example the long struggle of minority citizens for equal rights once a source of disunity and civil war is now a point of pride for all Americans We must never go back There is no room for racism antiSemitism or other forms of ethnic and racial hatred in this country I know that you39ve been horri ed as have I by the resurgence of some hate groups preaching bigotry and prejudice Use the mighty voice of your pulpits and the powerful standing of your churches to denounce and isolate these hate groups in our midst The commandment given us is clear and simple quotThou shalt love thy neighbor as thyselfquotBut whatever sad episodes exist in our past any objective observer must hold a positive view of American history a history that has been the story of hopes ful lled and dreams made into reality Especially in this century America has kept alight the torch of freedom but not just for ourselves but for millions of others around the world And this brings me to my nal point today During my rst press conference as President in answer to a direct question think I should point out I was only quoting Lenin their guiding spirit who said in 1920 that they repudiate all morality that proceeds from supernatural ideas that39s their name for religion or ideas that are outside class conceptions Communism and religion are fundamentally incompatible It is not goodness America is goodness through religion America is exceptional and Russia is bad Well I think the refusal of many in uential people to accept this elementary fact of Soviet doctrine illustrates an historical reluctance to see totalitarian powers for what they are We saw this phenomenon in the 193039s We see it too often today This doesn39t mean we should isolate ourselves and refuse to seek an understanding with them I intend to do everything I can to persuade them of our peaceful intent to remind them that it was the West that refused to use its nuclear monopoly in the forties and fties for territorial gain and which now proposes 50percent cut in strategic ballistic missiles and the elimination of an entire class of landbased intermediaterange nuclear missiles At the same time however they must be made to understand we will never compromise our principles and standards But we can assure none of these things America stands for through the so called nuclear freeze solutions proposed by some The truth is that a freeze now would be a very dangerous fraud for that is merely the illusion of peace Reagan wants us to maintain a world class arsenal that is superior to the Soviets Also wants to outspend the soviets Reagan assumed that resources were limitless So you could outspend the Soviets And cause them to collapse As they were on an economic collapse I would agree to a freeze if only we could freeze the Soviets39 global desires A freeze at current levels of weapons would remove any incentive for the Soviets to negotiate seriously in Geneva and virtually end our chances to achieve the major arms reductions which we have proposed Instead they would achieve their objectives through the freeze A freeze would reward the Soviet Union for its enormous and unparalleled military buildup It would prevent the essential and long overdue modernization of United States and allied defenses and would leave our aging forces increasingly vulnerable And an honest freeze would require extensive prior negotiations on the systems and numbers to be limited and on the measures to ensure effective veri cation and compliance And the kind of a freeze that has been suggested would be virtually impossible to verify Such a major effort would divert us completely from our current negotiations on achieving substantial reductions A number of years ago I heard a young father a very prominent young man in the entertainment world addressing a tremendous gathering in California It was during the time of the Cold War and communism and our own way of life were very much on people39s minds And he was speaking to that subject And suddenly though I heard him saying quotI love my little girls more than anything quotAnd I said to myself quotOh no don39t You can39t don39t say thatquot But I had underestimated him He went on quotI would rather see my little girls die now still believing in God than have they grow up under communism and one day die no longer believing in Godquot There were thousands of young people in that audience They came to their feet with shouts ofjoy They had instantly recognized the profound truth in what he had said with regard to the physical and the soul and what was truly important Yes let us pray for the salvation of all of those who live in that totalitarian darkness pray they will discover the joy of knowing God But until they do let us be aware that while they preach the supremacy of the state declare its omnipotence over individual man and predict its eventual domination of all peoples on the Earth they are the focus of evil in the modern world It was CS Lewis who in his unforgettable quotScrew tape Lettersquot wrote quotThe greatest evil is not done now in those sordid 39dens of crime39 that Dickens loved to paint It is not even done in concentration camps and labor camps In those we see its nal result But it is conceived and ordered moved seconded carried and minute in clear carpeted warmed and welllighted of ces by quiet men with white collars and cut ngernails and smoothshaven cheeks who do not need to raise their voicequot Well because these quotquiet menquot do not quotraise their voicesquot because they sometimes speak in soothing tones of brotherhood and peace because like other dictators before them they39re always making quottheir nal territorial demandquot some would have us accept them at their word and accommodate ourselves to their aggressive impulses But if history teaches anything it teaches that simpleminded appeasement or wishful thinking about our adversaries is folly It means the betrayal of our past the squandering of our freedom So I urge you to speak out against those who would place the United States in a position of military and moral inferiority You know I39ve always believed that old Screw tape reserved his best efforts for those of you in the church So in your discussions of the nuclear freeze proposals I urge you to beware the temptation of pride the temptation of blithely declaring yourselves above it all and label both sides equally at fault to ignore the facts of history and the aggressive impulses of an evil empire to simply call the arms race a giant misunderstanding and thereby remove yourself from the struggle between right and wrong and good and evil I ask you to resist the attempts of those who would have you withhold your support for our efforts this administration39s efforts to keep America strong and free while we negotiate real and veri able reductions in the world39s nuclear arsenals and one day with God39s help their total elimination While America39s military strength is important let me add here that I39ve always maintained that the struggle now going on for the world will never be decided by bombs or rockets by armies or military might The real crisis we face today is a spiritual one at root it is a test of moral will and faith Whittaker Chambers the man whose own religious conversion made him a witness to one of the terrible traumas of our time the HissChambers case wrote that the crisis of the Western World exists to the degree in which the West is indifferent to God the degree to which it collaborates in communism39s attempt to make man standalone without God And then he said for MarxismLeninism is actually the second oldest faith rst proclaimed in the Garden of Eden with the words of temptation quotYe shall be as godsquot The Western world can answer this challenge he wrote quotBut only provided that it39s faith in God and the freedom He enjoins is as great as communism39s faith in manquot I believe we shall rise to the challenge And because it must terrify and ultimately triumph over those who would enslave their fellow man For in the words of Isaiah quotHe giveth power to the faint and to them that have no might He increased strength But they that wait upon the Lord shall renew their strength they shall mount up with wings as eagles they shall run and not be wearyquot Regan believes the cold war is coming to an end And not in the destruction of America s adversary But the US will achieve this by outIasting the adversary The Soviets will transform and be converted Yes change your world One of our Founding Fathers Thomas Paine said quotWe have it within our power to begin the world over againquot We can do it doing together what no one church could do by itself God bless you and thank you very much Ronald Reagan39s quotStar Warsquot Speech Complete Text March 23 1983 My fellow Americans thank you for sharing your time with me tonight The subject I want to discuss with you peace and national security is both timely and important timely because I have reached a decision which offers a new hope for our children in the let century a decision I will tell you about in a few minutes and important because there is a very big decision that you must make for yourselves This subject involves the most basic duty that any President and any people share the duty to protect and strengthen the peace At the beginning of this year I submitted to the Congress a defense budget which re ects my best judgment and the best understanding of the experts and specialists who advise me about what we and our allies must do to protect our people in the years ahead That budget is much more than a long list of numbers for behind all the numbers lies America39s ability to prevent the greatest of human tragedies and preserve our free way of life in a sometimes dangerous world It is part of a careful longterm plan to make America strong again after too many years of neglect and mistakes Our efforts to rebuild America39s defenses and strengthen the peace began two years ago when we requested a major increase in the defense program Since then the amount of those increases we rst proposed has been reduced by half through improvements in management and procurement and other savings The budget request that is now before the Congress has been trimmed to the limits of safety Further deep cuts cannot be made without seriously endangering the security of the nation The choice is up to the men and women you have elected to the Congress and that means the choice is up to you Debate over Defense Tonight I want to explain to you what this defense debate is all about and why I am convinced that the budget now before the Congress is necessary responsible and deserving of your support And I want to offer hope for the future But rst let me say what the defense debate is not about It is not about spending arithmetic I know that in the last few weeks you39ve been bombarded with numbers and percentages Some say we need only a 5 percent increase in defense spending The socalled alternate budget backed by liberals in the House of Representatives would lower the gure to 2 to 3 percent cutting our defense spending by 163 billion over the next ve years The trouble with all these numbers is that they tell us little about the kind of defense program America needs or the bene ts in security and freedom that our defense effort buys for us What seems to have been lost in all this debate is the simple truth of how a defense budget is arrived at It isn39t done by deciding to spend a certain number of dollars Those loud voices that are occasionally heard charging that the Government is trying to solve a security problem by throwing money at it are nothing more than noise based on ignorance We start by considering what must be done to maintain peace and review all the possible threats against our security Then a strategy for strengthening peace and defending against those threats must be agreed upon And nally our defense establishment must be evaluated to see what is necessary to protect against any or all of the potential threats The cost of achieving these ends is totaled up and the result is the budget for national defense There is no logical way that you can say let39s spend X billion dollars less You can only say which part of our defense measures do we believe we can do without and still have security against all contingencies Anyone in the Congress who advocates a percentage or speci c dollar cut in defense spending should be made to say what part of our defenses he would eliminate and he should be candid enough to acknowledge that his cuts mean cutting our commitments to allies or inviting greater risk or both US Defense Policy The defense policy of the United States is based on a simple premise The United States does not start ghts We will never be an aggressor We maintain our strength in order to deter and defend against aggression to preserve freedom and peace Since the dawn of the atomic age we have sought to reduce the risk of war by maintaining a strong deterrent and by seeking genuine arms control Deterrence means simply this Making sure any adversary who thinks about attacking the United States or our allies or our vital interests concludes that the risks to him outweigh any potential gains Once he understands that he won39t attack We maintain the peace through our strength weakness only invites aggression This strategy of deterrence has not changed It still works But what it takes to maintain deterrence has changed It took one kind of military force to deter an attack when we had far more nuclear weapons than any other power it takes another kind now that the Soviets for example have enough accurate and powerful nuclear weapons to destroy virtually all of our missiles on the ground Now this is not to say that the Soviet Union is planning to make war on us Nor do I believe a war is inevitable quite the contrary But what must be recognized is that our security is based on being prepared to meet all threats There was a time when we depended on coastal forts and artillery batteries because with the weaponry of that day any attack would have had to come by sea Well this is a different world and our defenses must be based on recognition and awareness of the weaponry possessed by other nations in the nuclear age We can39t afford to believe that we will never be threatened There have been two world wars in my lifetime We didn39t start them and indeed did everything we could to avoid being drawn into them But we were illprepared for both had we been better prepared peace might have been preserved The Soviet Buildup for 20 years the Soviet Union has been accumulating enormous military might They didn39t stop when their forces exceeded all requirements of a legitimate defensive capability And they haven39t stopped now During the past decade and a half the Soviets have built up a massive arsenal of new strategic nuclear weapons weapons that can strike directly at the United States As an example the United States introduced its last new intercontinental ballistic missile the Minuteman III in 1969 and we are now dismantling our even older Titan missiles But what has the Soviet Union done in these intervening years Well since 1969 the Soviet Union has built ve new classes of lCBM39s and upgraded these eight times As a result their missiles are much more powerful and accurate than they were several years ago and they continue to develop more while ours are increasingly obsolete The same thing has happened in other areas Over the same period the Soviet Union built four new classes of submarinelaunched ballistic missiles and over 60 new missile submarines We built two new types of submarine missiles and actually withdrew 10 submarines from strategic missions The Soviet Union built over 200 new Back re bombers and their brand new Blackjack bomber is now under development We haven39t built a new longrange bomber since our B5239s were deployed about a quarter of a century ago and we39ve already retired several hundred of those because of old age Indeed despite what many people think our strategic forces only cost about 15 percent of the defense budget Another example of what39s happened In 1978 the Soviets had 600 intermediate range nuclear missiles based on land and were beginning to add the 5520 a new highly accurate mobile missile with three warheads We had none Since then the Soviets have strengthened their lead By the end of 1979 when Soviet leader Brezhnev declared quota balance now existsquot the Soviets had over 800 warheads We still had none A year ago this month Mr Brezhnev pledged a moratorium or freeze on 5520 deployment But by last August their 800 warheads had become more than 1200 We still had none Some freeze At this time Soviet Defense Minister Ustinov announced quotapproximate parity of forces continues to existquot But the Soviets are still adding an average of three new warheads a week and now have 1300 These warheads can reach their targets in a matter of a few minutes We still have none So far it seems that the Soviet de nition of parity is a box score of 1300 to nothing in their favor So together with our NATO allies we decided in 1979 to deploy new weapons beginning this year as a deterrent to their SS2039s and as and incentive to the Soviet Union to meet us in serious arms control negotiations We will begin that deployment late this year At the same time however we are willing to cancel our program if the Soviets will dismantle theirs This is what we have called a zero zero plan The Soviets are now at the negotiating table and I think it39s fair to say that without our planned deployments they wouldn39t be there Conventional Forces now let39s consider conventional forces Since 1974 the United States has produced 3050 tactical combat aircraft By contrast the Soviet Union has produced twice as many When we look at attack submarines the United States has produced 27 while the Soviet Union has produced 61 For armored vehicles including tanks we have produced 11200 The Soviet Union has produced 54000 nearly 5 to 1 in their favor Finally with artillery we have produced 950 artillery and rocket launchers while the Soviets have produced more than 13000 a staggering 14to1 ratio There was a time when we were able to offset superior Soviet numbers with higher quality But today they are building weapons as sophisticated and modern as our own As the Soviets have increased their military power they have been emboldened to extend that power They are spreading their military in uence in ways that can directly challenge our vital interests and those of our allies The following aerial photographs most of them secret until now illustrate this point in a crucial area very close to home Central America and the Caribbean Basin They are not dramatic photographs but I think they help give you a better understanding of what I39m talking about This Soviet intelligence collection facility less than 100 miles from our coast is the largest of its kind in the world The acres and acres of antenna elds and intelligence monitors are targeted on key US military installations and sensitive activities The installation in Lourdes Cuba is manned by 1500 Soviet technicians and the satellite ground station allows instant communications with Moscow This 28square mile facility has grown by more than 60 percent in size and capability during the past decade In western Cuba we see this military air eld and its complement of modern Soviet built MIG23 aircraft The Soviet Union uses this Cuban air eld for its own longrange reconnaissance missions and earlier this month two modern Soviet antisubmarine warfare aircraft began operating from it During the past two years the level of Soviet arms exports to Cuba can only be compared to the levels reached during the Cuban missile crisis 20 years ago This third photo which is the only one in this series that has been previously made public shows Soviet military hardware that has made its way to Central America This air eld with its Ml8 helicopters antiaircraft guns and protected ghter sites is one of a number of military facilities in Nicaragua which has received Soviet equipment funneled through Cuba and re ects the massive military buildup going on in that country On the small island of Grenada at the southern end of the Caribbean chain the Cubans with Soviet nancing and backing are in the process of building an air eld with a 10000foot runway Grenada doesn39t even have an air force Who is it intended for The Caribbean is a very important passageway for our international commerce and military lines of communication More than half of all American oil imports now pass through the Caribbean The rapid buildup of Grenada39s military potential is unrelated to any conceivable threat to this island country of under 110000 people and totally at odds with the pattern of other eastern Caribbean States most of which are unarmed The SovietCuban militarization of Grenada in short can only be seen as power projection into the region and it is in this important economic and strategic area that we are trying to help the governments of El Salvador Costa Rica Honduras and others in their struggles for democracy against guerrillas supported through Cuba and Nicaragua These pictures only tell a small part of the story wish I could show you more without compromising our most sensitive intelligence sources and methods But the Soviet Union is also supporting Cuban military forces in Angola and Ethiopia They have bases in Ethiopia and South Yemen near the Persian Gulf oil elds They have taken over the port that we built at Cam Ranch Bay in Vietnam and now for the rst time in history the Soviet Navy is a force to be reckoned with in the South Paci c Some people may still ask There is Afghanistan and in Poland the Soviets denied the will of the people and in so doing demonstrated to the world how their military power could also be used to intimidate Reagan believed that an attack by the USSR was possible And lms at the time backed this pope The nal fact is that the Soviet Union is acquiring what can only be considered an offensive military force They have continued to build far more intercontinental ballistic missiles than they could possibly need simply to deter an attack Their conventional forces are trained and equipped not so much to defend against an attack as they are to permit sudden surprise offensives of their own Our NATO allies have assumed a great defense burden including the military draft in most countries We are working with them and our other friends around the world to do more Our defensive strategy means we need military forces that can move very quickly forces that are trained and ready to respond to any emergency Every item in our defense program our ships our tanks our planes our funds for training and spare parts is intended for one allimportant purpose to keep the peace Unfortunately a decade of neglecting our military forces had called into question our ability to do that Meeting a Crisis When I took of ce in January 1981 I was appalled by what I found American planes that couldn39t y and American ships that couldn39t sail for lack of spare parts and trained personnel and insuf cient fuel and ammunition for essential training The inevitable result of all this was poor morale in our armed forces dif culty in recruiting the brightest young Americans to wear the uniform and dif culty in convincing our most experienced military personnel to stay on There was a real question then about how well we could meet a crisis And it was obvious that we had to begin a major modernization program to insure we could deter aggression and preserve the peace in the years ahead We had to move immediately to improve the basic readiness and staying power of our conventional forces so they could meet and therefore help deter a crisis We had to make up for lost years of investment by moving forward with a longterm plan to prepare our forces to counter the military capabilities our adversaries were developing for the future I know that all of you want peace and so do I know too that many of you seriously believe that a nuclear freeze would further the cause of peace But a freeze now would make us less not more secure and would raise not reduce the risks of war It would be largely unveri able and would seriously undercut our negotiations on arms reduction It would reward the Soviets for their massive military buildup while preventing us from modernizing our aging and increasingly vulnerable forces With their present margin of superiority why should they agree to arms reductions knowing that we were prohibited from catching up Believe me it wasn39t pleasant for someone who had come to Washington determined to reduce Government spending but we had to move forward with the task of repairing our defenses or we would lose our ability to deter con ict now and in the future We had to demonstrate to any adversary that aggression could not succeed and that the only real solution was substantial equitable and effectively veri able arms reduction the kind we39re working for right now in Geneva Thanks to your strong support and bipartisan support from the Congress we began to turn things round Already we are seeing some very encouraging results Quality recruitment and retention are up dramatically more high school graduates are choosing military careers and more experienced career personnel are choosing to stay Our men and women in uniform at last are getting the tools and training they need to do their jobs Ask around today especially among our young people and I think you39ll nd a whole new attitude toward serving their country This re ects more than just better pay equipment and leadership You the American people have sent a signal to these young people that it is once again an honor to wear the uniform That39s not something you measure in a budget but it is a very real part of our nation39s strength It will take us longer to build the kind of equipment we need to keep peace in the future but we39ve made a good start We haven39t built a new longrange bomber for 21 years Now we39re building the 81 We hadn39t launched one new strategic submarine for 17 years Now we39re building one Trident submarine a year Our land based missiles are increasingly threatened by the many huge new Soviet lCBM39s We are determining how to solve that problem At the same time we are working in the Start and NF negotiations with the goal of achieving deep reductions in the strategic and intermediate nuclear arsenals of both sides We have also begun the longneeded modernization of our conventional forces The Army is getting its rst new tank in 20 years The Air Force is modernizing We are rebuilding our Navy which shrank from about 1000 ships in the late 196039s to 453 ships during the 197039s Our nation needs a superior Navy to support our military forces and vital interests overseas We are now on the road to achieving a 600ship Navy and increasing the amphibious capabilities of our marines who are now serving the cause of peace in Lebanon And we are building a real capability to assist our friends in the vitally important Indian Ocean and Persian Gulf region This adds up to a major effort and it is not cheap It comes at a time when there are many other pressures on our budget and when the American people have already had to make major sacri ces during the recession But we must not be misled by those who would make defense once again the scapegoat of the Federal budget The Taxpayer39s Dollar The fact is that in the past few decades we have seen a dramatic shift in how we spend the taxpayer39s dollar Back in 1955 payments to individuals took up only about 20 percent of the Federal budget For nearly three decades these payments steadily increased and this year will account for 49 percent of the budget By contrast in 1955 defense took up more than half of the Federal budget By 1980 this spending had fallen to a low of 23 percent Even with the increase that I am requesting this year defense will still amount to only 28 percent of the budget The calls for cutting back the defense budget come in nice simple arithmetic They39re the same kind of talk that led the democracies to neglect their defenses in the 193039s and invited the tragedy of World War II We must not let that grim chapter of history repeat itself through apathy or neglect This is why I39m speaking to you tonight to urge you to tell your Senators and Congressmen that you know we must continue to restore our military strength If we stop in midstream we will send a signal of decline of lessened will to friends and adversaries alike Free people must voluntarily through open debate and democratic means meet the challenge that totalitarians pose by compulsion It39s up to us in our time to choose and choose wisely between the hard but necessary task of preserving peace and freedom and the temptation to ignore our duty and blindly hope for the best while the enemies of freedom grow stronger day by day The solution is well within our grasp but to reach it there is simply no alternative but to continue this year in this budget to provide the resources we need to preserve the peace and guarantee our freedom The Nuclear Threat Now thus far tonight I have shared with you my thoughts on the problems of national security we must face together My predecessors in the Oval Of ce have appeared before you on other occasions to describe the threat posed by Soviet power and have proposed steps to address that threat But since the advent of nuclear weapons those steps have been increasingly directed toward deterrence of aggression through the promise of retaliation This approach to stability through offensive threat has worked We and our allies have succeeded in preventing nuclear war for more than three decades In recent months however my advisers including in particular the Joint Chiefs of Staff have underscored the necessity to break out of a future that relies solely on offensive retaliation for our security Over the course of these discussions l have become more and more deeply convinced that the human spirit must be capable of rising above dealing with other nations and human beings by threatening their existence Feeling this way I believe we must thoroughly examine every opportunity for reducing tensions and for introducing greater stability into the strategic calculus on both sides One of the most important contributions we can make is of course to lower the level of all arms and particularly nuclear arms We are engaged right now in several negotiations with the Soviet Union to bring about a mutual reduction of weapons I will report to you a week from tomorrow my thoughts on that score But let me just say I am totally committed to this course If the Soviet Union will join with us in our effort to achieve major arms reduction we will have succeeded in stabilizing the nuclear balance Nevertheless it will still be necessary to rely on the specter of retaliation on mutual threat and that is a sad commentary on the human condition After careful consultation with my advisers including the Joint Chiefs of Staff I believe there is a way What if free people could live secure in the knowledge that their security did not rest upon the threat of instant US retaliation to deter a Soviet attack Modi ed version of the Wilsonian order Wants a world without nuclear missiles He wants to create a system of space born particle beam weapons that could shoot down soviet missiles before they could hit the US I know this is a formidable technical task one that may not be accomplished before the end of this century Yet current technology has attained a level of sophistication where it is reasonable for us to begin this effort It will take years probably decades of effort on many fronts There will be failures and setbacks just as there will be successes and breakthroughs And as we proceed we must remain constant in preserving the nuclear deterrent and maintaining a solid capability for exible response But isn39t worth every investment necessary to free the world from the threat of nuclear war We know it is In the meantime we will continue to pursue real reductions in nuclear arms negotiating from a position of strength that can be insured only by modernizing our strategic forces At the same time we must take steps to reduce the risk of a conventional military con ict escalating to nuclear war by improving our nonnuclear capabilities America does possess now the technologies to attain very signi cant improvements in the effectiveness of our conventional nonnuclear forces Proceeding boldly with these new technologies we can signi cantly reduce any incentive that the Soviet Union may have to threaten attack against the United States or its allies Honoring Commitments As we pursue our goal of defensive technologies we recognize that our allies rely upon our strategic offensive power to deter attacks against them Their vital interests and ours are inextricably linked their safety and ours are one And no change in technology can or will alter that reality We must and shall continue to honor our commitments I clearly recognize that defensive systems have limitations and raise certain problems and ambiguities If paired with offensive systems they can be viewed as fostering an aggressive policy and no one wants that But with these considerations rmly in mind I call upon the scienti c community in our country those who gave us nuclear weapons to turn their great talents now to the cause of mankind and world peace to give us the means of rendering these nuclear weapons impotent and obsolete Tonight consistent with our obligations under the ABM Treaty and recognizing the need for closer consultation with our allies I am taking an important rst step I am directing a comprehensive and intensive effort to de ne a longterm research and development program to begin to achieve our ultimate goal of eliminating the threat posed by strategic nuclear missiles This could pave the way for arms control measures to eliminate the weapons themselves We seek neither military superiority nor political advantage Our only purpose one all people share is to search for ways to reduce the danger of nuclear war My fellow Americans tonight we are launching an effort which holds the promise of changing the course of human history There will be risks and results take time But I believe we can do it As we cross this threshold I ask for your prayers and your support Thank you good night and God bless you Address to the Nation on the Situation in Nicaragua March 16 1986 My fellow Americans I must speak to you tonight about a mounting danger in Central America that threatens the security of the United States This danger will not go away it will grow worse much worse if we fail to take action now I39m speaking of Nicaragua a Soviet ally on the American mainland only 2 hours39 ying time from our own borders With over a billion dollars in Sovietbloc aid the Communist government of The United States Congress has before it a proposal to help stop this threat The legislation is an aid package of 100 million for the more than 20000 freedom ghters struggling to bring democracy to their country and eliminate this Communist menace at its source But this 100 million is not an additional 100 million We39re not asking for a single dime in new money We are asking only to be permitted to switch a small part of our present defense budget to the defense of our own southern frontier Gathered in Nicaragua already are thousands of Cuban military advisers contingents of Soviets and East Germans and all the elements of international terror from the PLO to Italy39s Red Brigades Why are they there Because as Colonel Gadha has publicly exulted Nicaragua means a great thing it means ghting America near its borders ghting America at its doorstepquot For our own security the United States must deny the Soviet Union a beachhead in North America But let me make one thing plain I39m not talking about American troops They are not needed they have not been requested The democratic resistance ghting in Nicaragua is only asking America for the supplies and support to save their own country from communism The question the Congress of the United States will now answer is a simple one Will we give the Nicaraguan democratic resistance the means to recapture their betrayed revolution or will we turn our backs and ignore the malignancy in Managua until it spreads and becomes a mortal threat to the entire New World Will we permit the Soviet Union to put a second Cuba a second Libya right on the doorstep of the United States How can such a small country pose such a great threat Well it is not Nicaragua alone that threatens us but those using Nicaragua as a privileged sanctuary for their struggle against the United States Their rst target is Nicaragua39s neighbors With an army and militia of 120000 men backed by more than 3000 Cuban military advisers Nicaragua39s Armed Forces are the largest Central America has ever seen The Nicaraguan military machine is more powerful than all its neighbors combined This map indicating represents much of the Western Hemisphere Now let me show you the countries in Central America where weapons supplied by Nicaraguan Communists have been found Honduras Costa Rica El Salvador and Guatemala Radicals from Panama to the south have been trained in Nicaragua but the Sandinista revolutionary reach extends well beyond their immediate neighbors In South America and the Caribbean the Nicaraguan Communists have provided support in the form of military training safe haven communications false documents safe transit and sometimes weapons to radicals from the following countries Colombia Ecuador Brazil Chile Argentina Uruguay and the Dominican Republic Even that is not all for there was an old Communist slogan that the Sandinistas have made clear they honor The road to victory goes through Mexico lf maps statistics and facts aren39t persuasive enough we have the words of the Sandinistas and Soviets themselves One of the highest level Sandinista leaders was asked by an American magazine whether their Communist revolution will and I quote be exported to El Salvador then Guatemala then Honduras and then Mexicoquot He responded that is one historical prophecy of Ronald Reagan that is absolutely truequot Well the Soviets have been no less candid A few years ago thenSoviet Foreign Minister Gromyko noted that Central America was quote boiling like a cauldronquot and ripe for revolution In a Moscow meeting in 1983 Soviet Chief of Staff Marshal Ogarkov declared Over two decades there are Nicaraguaquot I should say there was only Cuba in Latin America Today there are Nicaragua Grenada and a serious battle is going on in El Salvadorquot But we don39t need their quotes the American forces who liberated Grenada captured thousands of documents that demonstrated Soviet intent to bring Communist revolution home to the Western Hemisphere So we39re clear on the intentions of the Sandinistas and those who back them Let us be equally clear about the nature of their regime To begin with the Sandinistas have revoked the civil liberties of the Nicaraguan people depriving them of any legal right to speak to publish to assemble or to worship freely Independent newspapers have been shut down There is no longer any independent labor movement in Nicaragua nor any right to strike As AFL CIO leader Lane Kirkland has said Nicaragua39s headlong rush into the totalitarian camp cannot be denied by anyone who has eyes to seequot Well like Communist governments everywhere the Sandinistas have launched assaults against ethnic and religious groups The capital39s only synagogue was desecrated and rebombed the entire Jewish community forced to ee Nicaragua Protestant Bible meetings have been broken up by raids by mob violence by machineguns The Catholic Church has been singled out priests have been expelled from the country Catholics beaten in the streets after attending mass The Catholic primate of Nicaragua Cardinal Obando y Bravo has put the matter forthrightly We want to state clearlyquot he says that this government is totalitarian We are dealing with an enemy of the Churchquot Evangelical pastor Prudencio Baltodano found out he was on a Sandinista hit list when an army patrol asked his name You don39t know what we do to the evangelical pastors We don39t believe in Godquot they told him Pastor Baltodano was tied to a tree struck in the forehead with a ri e butt stabbed in the neck with a bayonet nally his ears were cut off and he was left for dead See if your God will save youquot they mocked Well God did have other plans for Pastor Baltodano He lived to tell the world his story to tell it among other places right here in the White House I could go on about this nightmare the black lists the secret prisons the Sandinistadirected mob violence But as if all this brutality at home were not enough the Sandinistas are transforming their nation into a safe house a command post for international terror The Sandinistas not only sponsor terror in El Salvador Costa Rica Guatemala and Honduras terror that led last summer to the murder of four US marines in a cafe in San Salvador they provide a sanctuary for terror Italy has charged Nicaragua with harboring their worst terrorists the Red Brigades The Sandinistas have even involved themselves in the international drug trade I know every American parent concerned about the drug problem will be outraged to learn that top Nicaraguan Government of cials are deeply involved in drug traf cking This picture indicating secretly taken at a military air eld outside Managua shows Federico Vaughn a top aide to one of the nine commandantes who rule Nicaragua loading an aircraft with illegal narcotics bound for the United States No there seems to be no crime to which the Sandinistas will not stoop this is an outlaw regime If we return for a moment to our map it becomes clear why having this regime in Central America imperils our vital security interests Through this crucial part of the Western Hemisphere passes almost half our foreign trade more than half our imports of crude oil and a signi cant portion of the military supplies we would have to send to the NATO alliance in the event of a crisis These are the chokepoints where the sealanes could be closed Central America is strategic to our Western alliance a fact always understood by foreign enemies In World War II only a few German Uboats operating from bases 4000 miles away in Germany and occupied Europe in icted crippling losses on US shipping right off our southern coast Today Warsaw Pact engineers are building a deep water port on Nicaragua39s Caribbean coast similar to the naval base in Cuba for Sovietbuilt submarines They are also constructing outside Managua the largest military air eld in Central America similar to those in Cuba from which Russian Bear Bombers patrol the US east coast from Maine to Florida How did this menace to the peace and security of our Latin neighbors and ultimately ourselves suddenly emerge Let me give you a brief history In 1979 the people of Nicaragua rose up and overthrew a corrupt dictatorship At rst the revolutionary leaders promised free elections and respect for human rights But among them was an organization called the Sandinistas Theirs was a Communist organization and their support of the revolutionary goals was sheer deceit Quickly and ruthlessly they took complete control Two months after the revolution the Sandinista leadership met in secret and in what came to be known as the 72hour Documentquot described themselves as the vanguard of a revolution that would sweep Central America Latin America and nally the world Their true enemy they declared the United States Rather than make this document public they followed the advice of Fidel Castro who told them to put on a facade of democracy While Castro viewed the democratic elements in Nicaragua with contempt he urged his Nicaraguan friends to keep some of them in their coalition in minor posts as window dressing to deceive the West And that wayquot Castro said you can have your revolution and the Americans will pay for itquot And we did pay for it More aid owed to Nicaragua from the United States in the rst 18 months under the Sandinistas than from any other country Only when the mask fell and the face of totalitarianism became visible to the world did the aid stop Confronted with this emerging threat early in our administration I went to Congress and with bipartisan support managed to get help for the nations surrounding Nicaragua Some of you may remember the inspiring scene when the people of El Salvador braved the threats and gun re of Communist guerrillas guerrillas directed and supplied from Nicaragua and went to the polls to vote decisively for democracy For the Communists in El Salvador it was a humiliating defeat But there was another factor the Communists never counted on a factor that now promises to give freedom a second chance the freedom ghters of Nicaragua and their Nicaraguan collaborators These few have now been joined by thousands ln helping to thwart the Sandinistas and their Soviet mentors the resistance has contributed directly to the security of the United States Since its inception in 1982 the democratic resistance has grown dramatically in strength Today it numbers more than 20000 volunteers and more come every day But now the freedom ghters39 supplies are running short and they are virtually defenseless against the helicopter gunships Moscow has sent to Managua Now comes the crucial test for the Congress of the United States Will they provide the assistance the freedom ghters need to deal with Russian tanks and gunships or will they abandon the democratic resistance to its Communist enemy ln answering that question I hope Congress will re ect deeply upon what it is the resistance is ghting against in Nicaragua Ask yourselves What in the world are Soviets East Germans Bulgarians North Koreans Cubans and terrorists from the PLO and the Red Brigades doing in our hemisphere camped on our own doorstep Is that for peace Why have the Soviets invested 600 million to build Nicaragua into an armed force almost the size of Mexico39s a country 15 times as large and 25 times as populous Is that for peace Why did Nicaragua39s dictator Daniel Ortega go to the Communist Party Congress in Havana and endorse Castro39s call for the worldwide triumph of communism Was that for peace Some Members of Congress ask me why not negotiate That39s a good question and let me answer it directly We have sought and still seek a negotiated peace and a democratic future in a free Nicaragua Ten times we have met and tried to reason with the Sandinistas 10 times we were rebuffed Last year we endorsed church mediated negotiations between the regime and the resistance The Soviets and the Sandinistas responded with a rapid arms buildup of mortars tanks artillery and helicopter gunships Clearly the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact have grasped the great stakes involved the strategic importance of Nicaragua The Soviets have made their decision to support the Communists Fidel Castro has made his decision to support the Communists Arafat Qadha and the Ayatollah Khomeini have made their decision to support the Communists Now we must make our decision With Congress39 help we can prevent an outcome deeply injurious to the national security of the United States If we fail there will be no evading responsibility history will hold us accountable This is not some narrow partisan issue it is a national security issue an issue on which we must act not as Republicans not as Democrats but as Americans Forty years ago Republicans and Democrats joined together behind the Truman doctrine It must be our policy Harry Truman declared to support peoples struggling to preserve their freedom Under that doctrine Congress sent aid to Greece just in time to save that country from the closing grip of a Communist tyranny We saved freedom in Greece then And with that same bipartisan spirit we can save freedom in Nicaragua today Over the coming days I will continue the dialog with Members of Congress talking to them listening to them hearing out their concerns Senator Scoop Jackson who led the ght on Capitol Hill for an awareness of the danger in Central America said it best On matters of national security the best politics is no politicsquot You know recently one of our most distinguished Americans Clare Boothe Luce had this to say about the coming vote In considering this crisisquot Mrs Luce said my mind goes back to a similar moment in our history back to the rst years after Cuba had fallen to Fidel One day during those years I had lunch at the White House with a man I had known since he was a boy John F Kennedy Mr President39 I said no matter how exalted or great a man may be history will have time to give him no more than one sentence George Washington he founded our country Abraham Lincoln he freed the slaves and preserved the Union Winston Churchill he saved Europe39 And what Clare39 John Kennedy said do you believe my sentence will be Mr President39 she answered your sentence will be that you stopped the Communists or that you did not39 quot Well tragically John Kennedy never had the chance to decide which that would be Now leaders of our own time must do so My fellow Americans you know where I stand The Soviets and the Sandinistas must not be permitted to crush freedom in Central America and threaten our own security on our own doorstep Now the Congress must decide where it stands Mrs Luce ended by saying only this is certain Through all time to come this the 99th Congress of the United States will be remembered as that body of men and women that either stopped the Communists before it was too late or did notquot So tonight I ask you to do what you39ve done so often in the past Get in touch with your Representative and Senators and urge them to vote yes tell them to help the freedom ghters Help us prevent a Communist takeover of Central America I have only 3 years left to serve my country 3 years to carry out the responsibilities you entrusted to me 3 years to work for peace Could there be any greater tragedy than for us to sit back and permit this cancer to spread leaving my successor to face far more agonizing decisions in the years ahead The freedom ghters seek a political solution They are willing to lay down their arms and negotiate to restore the original goals of the revolution a democracy in which the people of Nicaragua choose their own government That is our goal also but it can only come about if the democratic resistance is able to bring pressure to bear on those who have seized power We still have time to do what must be done so history will say of us We had the vision the courage and good sense to come together and act Republicans and Democrats when the price was not high and the risks were not great We left America safe we left America secure we left America free still a beacon of hope to mankind still a light unto the nations Thank you and God bless you
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