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April 7-9 (Africa)

by: Helen Jiang

April 7-9 (Africa) GEOG 3120

Helen Jiang
GPA 3.26
World Regional Geography
Joe Dymond

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About this Document

Detailed lecture notes, with in-class trivia (test extra credit) and highlights from his office hours included.
World Regional Geography
Joe Dymond
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Helen Jiang on Friday May 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 3120 at George Washington University taught by Joe Dymond in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 132 views. For similar materials see World Regional Geography in Geography at George Washington University.


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Date Created: 05/01/15
Tuesday April 7 Africa Dymond Office Hour Notes Great Rift Valley Begins in Syria 9 Jordan River valley 9 Dead Sea ONLY place BELOW sea level 9 Red Sea AT sea level 9 Ethiopia and down the rest of the east African coast to Mozambique Lots of rivers and great lakes from orographic lift and ITCZ The lakes formed in the valleys themselves 0 Geologically active area volcano and good agricultural conditions soil amp sediment amp ash 0 Lake Tana Blue Nile 0 Lake Victoria White Nile Africa i 1 2nd largest continental landmass 1St Asia 25 of world s land mass North Africa is dominated by the Sahara Geography is diverse 54 countries in Africa Climate Middle is in the equatorial zone which means yearround moisture and a tropical center DRC rain forest Northern area s rainy seasons are starting to get shorter II Physical Geography Biomes Large scale ecosystems that parallel the different climate zones SW Namib Desert Formed by very cold water off the west African coast so the air is cold high pressure and can t heat up to create precipitation Nile River 1st longest river in Africa at 4160 miles long Congo River 2nd longest river at 2718 miles long It s not navigable even though is has the 2nd greatest volume of water in the world Amazon 1 because its irregular depth rapids and breaks make it impossible to sail through 0 African uvial system is opposite of Europe s Niger River 31 d longest river at 2600 miles long Large ships can travel about 250 miles inland to Lokoja Nigeria It s an important cultural and historic river and is used for a lot of local and regional transportation 0 It s a major river delta that features one of the significant oil and gas regions in Africa 9 high con ict zone The delta is also important for providing freshwater for human livestock and agricultural use Zambezi River 4th longest river at 1599 miles long It s not navigable nor is a transport river because of its many rapids However tourism is strong because of its national parks and white water rapid enthusiasts Additionally Victoria Falls is on this river Orange River 1367 miles long it ows east to west through South Africa and becomes the border of South Africa and Namibia before reaching the Atlantic Okavango River 1200 miles long originating in eastern Angola and ows south through Botswana and South Africa Its delta ows into the Kalahari Desert southern Africa so there s a lot of evaporation and a unique amount of biodiversity o TRIVIA DYMOND S FAVORITE RIVER African Plate One massive plate 0 Arabian Peninsula and African Plate are rifting apart 39 A rift formed as two arcs in eastern Africa are creating a deep valley region 39 Origin of the Blue Tana and White Victoria Nile 39 Africa s Great Lakes region formed from precipitation in the valleys 0 Great Rift Valley 3000 miles long from Syria to Mozambique It s BELOW sea level at the Dead Sea AT sea level at the Red Sea and ABOVE sea level in eastern Africa 6000 ft 39 Active volcanoes and nutrientrich soil 9 great agricultural conditions Tanzania 0 East African country that s slightly larger than California with 508 million people 0 People are 40 Muslim 35 Christian and 25 are indigenous 0 Increasing foreign in uences mainly from Arabs and Europeans Speak Swahili Arabic Bantu and English 0 Northern area is mostly national parks Serengeti National Park amp Mt Kilimanjaro 0 In the equatorial tropics so it s a typical warm coastal tropic zone 0 As you go west the elevation increases 0 Tropical temperature changes with elevation to a savannah steppe climate 0 Rift Valley dominates the western half and there s active geologic activity 0 Arusha Declaration Codified politics and socialism O Arusha city is a major international diplomatic hub this is where the UN office is located 0 Dar es Saalem Largest and richest city also very international Moshi Small northeast area dominated by Mt Kilimanjaro s tourism 0 Mount Kilimanjaro is important for tourism and water You have to get government approval and a local guide to climb the mountain 0 67 day course not a technically difficult climb and locals are employed along the way 0 It has its own climate zone as the surrounding area is the dry part of Tanzania 39 You experience every climate zone as you climb up 39 Unique biodiversity with some species found only in this area 0 Coal iron tin tanzanite and oil resources in this area 0 Cotton rice sugar bananas coconuts coffee tea and owers are cultivated 0 Floral industry is booming and controlled by Europeans 0 Climate It creates its own weather and rain which strengthens the rainy season 39 Dry anuary amp February june October 39 Rainiest March May 39 Rainy November amp December Thursday April 9 Dymond Office Hour Notes 0 ITCZ happens only in the tropics and goes across Africa in belts 0 Middle Rainiest where the rain forest is O Radiates outward Dryness until desert northsouth 0 East ITCZ area over Ethiopia s mountainous east Great Rift Valley isn t in perfect belts because rainfall comes from orographic lift 0 ITCZ is north of the equator in the Northern hemisphere s summer by Tropic of Cancer and south of the equator in the Southern hemisphere s summer by Tropic of Capricorn 0 African Plate is being pulled apart and a rift division with two arcing rips are occurring along the Rift Valley 0 Rifting can also create ridging from volcanic eruptions happens in underwater ridges too African area of the Great Rift Valley has a high elevation because of ridging and ancient geologic activity Blue Nile originates in Lake Tana and the White Nile originates in Lake Victoria They both meet at Khartoum Ethiopia Ethiopian Highlands are where agriculture and people are concentrated while the lowlands is dry and sparsely populated Agricultural growth in Ethiopia is all from foreign investors Saudis control and own pretty much all of it and there are also some land renters exploiting this area Tanzania National parks and protected areas in Africa are lived in and farmed which is very different than American national parks Masaai boys paint their faces and try and preserve it for as long as possible following their initiation circumcision Masaai live in homesteads in pastoral regions with several huts the split up the families subfamilies wives etc They traditionally wear red Hippo is the deadliest African animal because they are extremely territorial Zebras stand in opposite directions to be vigilant for lions Ngorongoro Conservation Area Tanzania is a volcanic depression has a ring of mountains and has a lot of wildlife Inbreeding problems have been happening because movement in and out is a bit difficult in certain areas Even in this crater there are different climate zones with a wet and dry side Tanzania has rather strict tourism laws that apply to its parks and mountains Mt Kilimanjaro In your but a Masaai protects you TRIVIA SNAPPED FEROCIOUS LION PICTURE WHILE EXITING TANZANIA ONE OF HIS BEST WILDLIFE PICS Ethiopia Oldest independent country in Africa it was never fully colonized Italians did in uence parts of Ethiopia but it was never fully colonized Exhibits all aspects of political geography Unbelievably complicated history US is very interested in Ethiopia for a variety of reasons 0 Regional leader powder keg for potential instability 0 Currently the most stable country in East Africa Horn of Africa 0 Religion Has significant Christian government and leading culture groups I Amhara and Tigray are very conservative Christians and in charge I Muslims and Christians in Ethiopia are conservative I South Oromo Animist Southeast Somali Muslim Northeast Tigray Christian Northwest Amhara Christian 0 Border con icts with Somalia and porous volatile border con icts over ethnic group Somalis in Ethiopia Somali refugee problem EritreaEthiopia political con ict mainly Amhara and Eritreans is still going Very proximate to ME interests Arabian Peninsula Red Sea Suez Canal Kenya and Sudan alShabaab is active in Ethiopia Eritrea and Kenya TRIVIA LA amp DC have the two biggest Eritrean and Ethiopian 23 of the country is highlands wet seasonally and has great agriculture READ AGRICULTURE PHENOMENON ARTICLE amp OTHER ARTICLES WHAT WAS THE HOMEWORK WITH THEM There are starving Ethiopians due to poverty but there are wellfed Ethiopians as well Northeast is the dry sparse area 00000 1 Physical Climate 0 Western half is good highland area with decent rainfall Tropical Belt of Convergence and Orographic Lift Runoff creates lots of lakes and rivers Blue Nile begins here at Lake Tana while Lake Victoria Uganda is the origin for the White Nile Other areas have tropical summer rain climate and subtropical rain climate great agricultural potential 0 Eastwards has little precipitation challenged agriculture sparse shrubby pastoralists nomads live in this area Bahir Dar is a large resort city as it s on the southern bank of Lake T ana where you can visit Blue Nile Falls when it s at the dry season April while the rainy season summer is very wet The government has also artificially diverted water for agriculture Most of the population density happens in the West Great Rift Valley Area is right in this area It comes into Djibouti widens in Ethiopia breaks into 2 valleys and merges again in Mozambique Active volcanoes in Ethiopia especially in the NE Monolithic rock Christian churches dug into the ground made this a world heritage site 2014 o 96 million people 2 African population after Nigeria 0 Bigger than Egypt DRC and South Africa 0 17 urban which is one of the lowest in the world 11 Human Ethnicity Oromo 345 Amhara 269 Somali 62 Language Oromo working language in Oromya 338 Amharic is official national language 293 Somali is official working language of State of Sumale 62 Religion Ethiopian Orthodox 435 Muslim 339 Protestant 186 traditional 26 Catholic 07 other 07 TRIVIA Rastafarianism comes from an Ethiopian emperor who believed he was the reincarnation of a Christian prince Culture Cases Awra Amba Cooperative community started by Zumra who wanted to found a community based on selfreliance and problemsolving They believe in hard work not Muslim or Christianity They also have gender equality HOWEVER Dymond doesn t feel like the community was very happy or social but it was just based on one visit 111 Resources amp Economy Agriculture Coffee Oil seeds sugarcane vegetables grains cereals rice Floriculture Energy hydroelectric and forestry Manufacturing amp Textiles Retail Financial Services Tourism All present in capital Addis Ababa Land Use Case AgroImperialism Mohamed alAmoudi is a SaudiEthiopian businessman billionaire who made his profits from investing in various fields Countries that don t have the capacity physical environmental condition to grow food but have the money are buying up huge amounts of land in Ethiopia to cultivate foodstuffs for export back to the investor s country Saudi Arabia is a major investor with a growing population and food needs Pros and Cons Territorial assistance or trouble from investing country major population displacement


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