Last week of notes
Last week of notes GEO 101
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cassidy Reid on Friday May 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEO 101 at Washington State University taught by Wilkie in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Geology in Geology at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 05/01/15
Geo notes Video Notes quotThe day the earth shookquot 1Northridge had far less deaths compared to Kobe Kobe had large building above it and Northridge did not Similarities is that they were both blind faults so they did not know where the epicenter was 2 Fire and the satellite going down was a geological explanation for a higher number of fatalities resulting from the Kobe earthquake 3Some tall buildings pancaked certain oors collapsed because of the failure of the rst oor Buildings with garages underneath because of the lack of support 4 Using metal to strengthen the freeways and some buildings is a good prevention for earthquakes They need to be build for earthquake prevention Foundations on bedrock 5 Lithi cation is the sinking of sediments 6 They can turn of trains once they are triggered by the p wave and 5 wave They can also turn off the pipelines to prevent res in large cities Liquefaction unconsolidated sediment becomes water saturated and ows can cause mass movements and sinking of structures Ground Shift uplift and subsidence can be caused by earthquakes Fires are common after earthquakes broken gas pipelines and broken water mains are contributing factors Earthquakes within plates Possible cause Reactivation of faults at old plate boundary 0 Old faults that have been reactivated by erosion release of overlying pressure 0 Rainfall Human induced Future continental rift zones Can earthquakes be predicted Some animals seem to sense an EQ is coming However it is not reliable quotrecurrence interval the average time between earthquakes on a given fault There is a relationship between the size of an earthquake and the recurrence interval the longer the interval between earthquakes the Iargerthe probable quake energy quotbuilds upquot for longer period of time Seismic Hazard map for North America takes into account the intensity of seismic shaking and proximity to active faults Seismic Risk map for the US describes the damage that one can expect It takes into account the seismic hazard but also the population density building type So what can we do to reduce the rick from earthquakes Public Education about earthquakes hazards emergency practices 0 Land use policy 0 Earthquake engineering Earthquakes cannot be predicted P Waves Able to move through solid rock and molten rock 0 Travel more quickly through solid rock velocity increases with increased density S Waves Able to move through solid rock velocity increases with increased density Direction may change Seismic re ection Shallow angle waves bounce off Seismic refraction Steeper angle waves bend Shadow Zones Area where seismic waves are not recorded opposite an earthquake epicenter Both P and S waves shadow zones form as a result of the molten outer core of the earth 0 P waves are refracted by the outer core 0 S waves disappear in the outer core The velocity of a seismic wave is dependent on several factors 0 The rocks density 0 The resistance compression and shear Al of which chane with composition and crystal structure Moho is the boundary between the crust and mantle is marked by a velocity decrease How do we know what the core is made of Data is gathered form Astronomical data meteorites Laboratory experiments 0 Seismic data and calculations Best hypothesis The core is composed of an ironnickel with minor amounts of some lighter elements such as oxygen and sulfur