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March 3 (full) & March 17 (first of 3 combo-lectures)

by: Helen Jiang

March 3 (full) & March 17 (first of 3 combo-lectures) IAFF 2093

Marketplace > George Washington University > International Studies > IAFF 2093 > March 3 full March 17 first of 3 combo lectures
Helen Jiang
GPA 3.26
Africa: Problems & Prospects
Ambassador David Shinn

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About this Document

March 3rd full notes (news, lecture, discussion questions) and March 17th notes from the first of 3 combined lectures (health). The notes have been fact-checked and clarified at office hours.
Africa: Problems & Prospects
Ambassador David Shinn
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Helen Jiang on Friday May 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to IAFF 2093 at George Washington University taught by Ambassador David Shinn in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 67 views. For similar materials see Africa: Problems & Prospects in International Studies at George Washington University.

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Date Created: 05/01/15
Tuesday March 3 News Postponed elections in Egypt Somali pirate release 4 Thai fishermen decline in piracy though Female suicide bomber in northern Nigeria killed 4 Resurgence of Ebola in Sierra Leone VP guinea has upsurge Liberia is doing really well though Medical team in Guinea went out to rural village last year entire team slaughtered because villagers thought they were spreading Ebola shocking because it was macabre and confounding native medical team not foreigners China has banned ivory imports for a year but what happens after a year Population Slightly over 1 billion population In the last 30 years the continent s population has doubled lt s growing at a rate around 2225 a year which is the highest growth rate in the world global average 11 SubSaharan Africa population growth is really the lead north Africa has slower rates 0 But the population growth rate is actually slowing done but it s still faster than everywhere else Low birth rates in northern and southern Africa but most of the widecentral zone has high birth rates HE SAID Look at the map in the economist Slowing population is still expected to double between now and 2050 o 40 Urban areas urbanization is growing but is usually concentrated in 12 cities including the capital with rapid urbanization There is not an even spread of urbanization Except Lagos Nigeria not a capital but a major city Africa s 3 largest cities are Lagos Nigeria Kinshasa DRC and Cairo Egypt As a region Africa has the youngest regional population 0 Nigeria and EgyptEthiopia a smidge million more are the most populous countnes Africa s so big that most Africans can migrate to new agricultural land rather than move into cities however there s increasing attraction and pressure to move to cities more opportunities amp less new land Population control was happening in precolonial times but it s kinda fuzzy Missionaries promoted large families and the WesternChristian view that women should be good wives as opposed to politicaleconomic engagement 0 Until recently family planning has not been a focus but government and society are working towards that Most countries have low population densities and low population 0 Vast chunks of Africa have low population density Unless rather rapid population growth was checked resource competition for foodspacejobeducationetc would seriously destabilize most countries 0 Also problem were many areas are too drywet for productive agriculture 0 Proponents of family planning argue that family planning measures must be implemented for development to take place 0 Some countries have included a small degree of family planning but mostly due to economic pressure but they re usually not very effective Most families are receptive towards smaller families due to the economic pressure 0 o Niger highest population growth rate has no family planning measures in place Births per family is 78 0 Most programs are usually dependent of outside donors and aid agencies to fund family planning 0 Population growth far exceeds the wage sector to absorb it It s common for unemployment to reach 40 in urban areas These are political and security implications 0 Although African governments can t agree on population control policies but two main efforts are 0 Discouraging migration to major cities In some cases some governments have tried to remove unwanted migrants from those cities bulldozing housing areas in Sudan but they ll just move to another slumarea especially if eviction s last minute 0 Improve living conditions in the cities for everyone but it attracts more people 0 Seemingly no winwin situation 0 But what about making rural conditions better to keep people where they are especially in agricultural sectors 0 Basic services such as electricity plumbing sewage system etc are lacking unless you re in a wealthy area 0 Affordable food especially as government subsidization for urban residents are throwing up rural prices everything will be offkilter SHINN BELIEVES government policies that keep people where they are and move people towards 3m394th biggest cities HIVZAIDS 15 years ago it really looked like HIVAIDS would destroy the continent Shinn worked with Ethiopia in the 905 about this would overtake South Africa as biggest infected population 0 South Africa was and still is the most populous infected country Governmental policies were horrific they were doing pretty much everything in the wrong way even denying it was happening 0 DON T PAY A39ITENTION TO NUMBERS OR IN TEXTBOOK CUZ THEY RE A Ll39l39l39LE OUT OF DATE SubSaharan Africa accounts for 70 of global population living today with HIVAIDS 0 North African percentages are very low 0 Death rates have dropped signi cantly due to antiretroviral medicine 0 Prevalence rates tend to be lower in west and central Africa 0 South Africa Botswana and Swaziland have a particularly high adult prevalence rate 0 Rates are fairly high in east Africa but they re stabilizing and even declining in some parts 0 Mauritania Niger Somalia and Senegal have less than 1 HIV prevalence rate 0 African women are more likely to be infected than men 60 vs 40 0 Excess of men in urban areas casual sex 0 Lots of prostitutionsurvival sex not safe 0 Low use of condomuse education 0 Lots of shame and religious beliefs denialsigni cant obstacles in scienti c research 0 Concept of fatalism is popular in the developing world where everything is tough so it s like oh gee if I won t die of this I ll die of something else so yolo Policy failures in AIDS epidemic o Governments just didn t pick up on it early enough 0 Internationally there was a lot of confusion in the implementation of prevention programs But now 50 have access to antiretroviral medicine amazing Vaccines are in development but there are so many strains that it s hard to develop an allencompassing solution Discussion Q5 What development in the 18005 depopulated particularly in West Africa Africa The slave trade Why was family planning education not prioritized Low degree of education high child mortality rate lack of funding biggest explanation in terms of governmental poHcy Do you think family planning programs are more likely to succeed in urban or rural areas Urban people are more easily accessed and they also understand the gravity of resource competition Rural area is hard especially because of transportation infrastructure Should African family planning take a prominent role in US foreign policy and aid Controversial but I say yes we re planning for a future that s more stable If you had to focus on one policy to slow down HIVAIDS in Africa which one would you choose Encourage the use of condoms Tuesday March 17 CRAMMING 3 LECTURES INTO 1 NO NEWS Health Issues A large range of health problems ranging from exotic to banal Chronic diseases like heart disease and cancers account for less than 25 of deaths This is signi cantly lower relative to the developed world 0 Recent studies suggest that cancer in particular and heart disease to an extent is becoming increasingly problematic in the poorerrural Areas of Africa due to the expensive nature of treatment lacking infrastructure and receives a diminutive portion of foreign aid relative to other diseases they do kill more people though There s also a gap in education and training in specialists for each kind of cancer 0 Diabetes is predicted to become an increasingly bigger killer due to a change in diet towards more Western foods and a more sedentary lifestyle less exerciseless laborintensive work Malaria deaths occur usually in subSaharan Africa 8590 deaths occur in African countries At least 300 million annual cases of acute malaria with 1 million deaths 90 of all malaria deaths are in subSaharan Africa usually children PERCENTAGE NUMBERS ARE FAIR GAME BUT HE WOULDN T ASK FOR RAW NUMBER 0 Nigeria accounts for 25 of global malaria cases granted it is the most populous African country This is compounded by a particularly strong East African strain and a lackdiminished access to vaccines for children 0 3 reasons 1 Most severe form of malaria is in Africa 2 Most deadly kind of mosquito is African 3 Many countries lack infrastructure for antimalaria campaign 0 Chloroquin is the standard antimalaria drug that Africans have built up immunity to so they have to turn towards newer and more expensive drugs Artimensin is made from Chinese herbs and is losing its potency so it now has to be used with other drugs 0 Darwinism area of the world for malaria to weed out effective solution Popular solution is cheap insecticidetreated bed net usually dusknight is when infection occur UN has found that it can reduce malaria transmission up to 90 Success depends on how wide distribution is Use a ashlight and then smack to kill a mosquito inside the net DDT banned in the US in 1972 is still used in Africa It is an effective and cheap killer of most mosquitos but some have developed a resistance to DDT so African leaders are calling for its widespread return However it s controversial because in small doses within the household it can prevent most infections but it has damaging lasting effects on ora and fauna 0 Rachel Carson s 1962 The Silent Spring documented the environmental problems of DDT which led towards its mostly global ban 0 However the WHO has endorsed its indoor sprayuse but this has raised fears that European countries may stop importing crops sprayed with DDT or that it could get disrupt their native ecosystems Cholera there are still sporadic outbreaks that is mediagrabbing but doesn t kill many people 2011 Lake Chad basinarea killed 2000 people One of the main causes of cholera is poor sanitation Measles is still a problem where lack of vaccination has caused high contagion rates and death in children especially Infants sub 1 year can t get vaccinated so they are highly susceptible 0 20092010 had major outbreaks in Malawi and Burkina Faso 0 Outbreaks are usually caused by a group of people missingrefusingin a con ict zone the vaccination period There are signi cant measles vaccination campaigns o It costs less than 1 to vaccinate a child so it s scal for African countries and foreign donors The best programs are integrated that provide children with measles and polio vaccines insecticide bed nets and antiworm medicine Leprosy is being increasingly eliminated from Africa but new cases are still being identi ed It s a disease of poverty and can be easily cured by a combination of drugs as long as people are willing to take it or have access to it It s not very contagious Polio has experienced major efforts with considerable success Most African countries were able to eradicate it except a few Recently an outbreak occurred starting in Nigeria that has left 9 countries in central and western Africa with periodic outbreaks of it o Outbreaks are caused by vaccination inconsistency and disruptions in campaign main and follow up ones to keep pace with the newborns 0 Rotary International has been doing longterm major work to eradicate polio from the world 0 However con ict that restricts medical access is a major challenge to prolonged campaign Guinea worm is started from larvae living in crustaceans water eas that can be ingested through drinking The worm doesn t die and emerges after a year usually in the lower leg and can grow up to 3 feet long and living inside you This can be exceptionally debilitating and excruciating o 1990 guinea worm was found throughout Africa but after clean water campaigns guinea worm prevalence has decreased 0 1986 Carter Foundation started an eradication campaign after 4 million cases emerged 2009 saw 3500 con rmed cases The Gates Foundation has contributed 40 million to end the scourge 0 Sudan and South Sudan account for 80 global cases mostly due to ongoing con ict Ethiopia Mali and Ghana have pockets of guinea worm infections too o It can be prevented by teaching people to lter the water they drink such as using a cotton cloth and pouring the water through it as well as keeping infected people out of water sources Poverty overcrowding urban sprawl civil war refugee movements WHAT ELSE have combined to make a major issue out of tuberculosis Large meningitis outbreaks have occurred over the past years The belt stretches from Ethiopia to Senegal across the entire center of Africa covering 20 countries There s a vaccine for Type A that costs less than 50 cents a dose to battle the more popular kinds of meningitis Yellow fever is transmitted by mosquitos and can become an outbreak if there s a signi cant unvaccinated population River blindness is a debilitating disease transmitted by a ea that enjoys rushing water that is still existent in some isolated areas of Africa Schistosomiasis is carried by snails in lakes or bodies of slowmoving water and becomes a parasite in the lungs liver and urinary tracts Tuberculosis HIVAIDS and malaria are the most serious diseases Female Genital MutilationFemale circumcision First recorded case happened thousands of years ago in Egypt went through the Nile and spread via migration to North Africa Savannah Sahel Horn of Africa and parts of East Africa Somalia Egypt Mali Sudan and Ethiopia are the most signi cantly impacted by FGM In places that have this either practice it all together or just one group It s not con ned to a single religion The most severe form of circumcision is common in NE Africa Christian missionaries played a central role in discouraging FGM Some people who argue in favor of FGM claim it s their cultural duty or religious duty or for marriage It s concerned normal behavior not a taboo subject is present in the whole population if it is practiced It s done to bind all youth to the same age set important to some African societies control system over chastity social norms for believing FGM d females make good wives and is for puri cation Criminalizing the practice has forced it underground Education campaigns have had limited success Western intervention has had polarizing effects How to challenge this without damaging the integrity of cultural practices Tuesday March 17 notes continued in next StudySoup document for the next 2 of 3 lectures crammed into 1 lecture


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