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March 17 (last 2 of 3 combo lectures) & 19 (full)

by: Helen Jiang

March 17 (last 2 of 3 combo lectures) & 19 (full) IAFF 2093

Marketplace > George Washington University > International Studies > IAFF 2093 > March 17 last 2 of 3 combo lectures 19 full
Helen Jiang
GPA 3.26
Africa: Problems & Prospects
Ambassador David Shinn

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About this Document

March 17th notes are the last 2 of 3 combined lectures. March 19th notes are full (news, lecture, discussion questions). All notes fact-checked and clarified during office hours.
Africa: Problems & Prospects
Ambassador David Shinn
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Helen Jiang on Friday May 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to IAFF 2093 at George Washington University taught by Ambassador David Shinn in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see Africa: Problems & Prospects in International Studies at George Washington University.

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Date Created: 05/01/15
Tuesday March 17 CRAMMING 3 LECTURES INTO 1 NO NEWS First health of 3 combined lectures is in the previous StudySoup document Education 19th and early 20th centuries missionaries laid the basis for most of the foundation for education in Africa Missionaries modeled African schools after European and American schools which unfortunately re ected little of African needs Colonial education became a slightly adapted secular form of missionary education These could co exist and were not that helpful to Africans As long as a colonial power was in charge very few Africans received formal education So only after 19605 did more Africans get formal education In the classroom the teacher exercised unquestioned authority which was transferred to newly independent education programs After the independence period NOT THE 1960S EVERYONE HAD DIFFERENT YEAR BUT THE FLOODGATES OPENED IN 1960 new governments sought to drastically overhaul the education system This has led to a major increase in the number of African children attending primary a ton and secondary a lot education 0 However this has strained education services which has led to a decrease in quality to encompass education needs Schooling is based on the assumption that knowledge is certain and factual as opposed to contentious and subject to change So question and debatestyle was rare but is emerging now 0 There is little dialogue as the role of African teachers is to impart knowledge to the students It is a rather formal approach to the classroom with some violence discipline uniformed and very factbased discussion if any Traditional patterns of child rearing explain to some extent the school system s heavy respect foundation 0 There s little arguing In uence of colonial education model and interaction with traditional African values still reign supreme Most African governments have not wanted in independent critical and confident nationals For authoritarian regimes they would prefer sheep rather than challengers and generally people in power don t want to be challenged Additionally Africa has a large number of vocational students that require more technical skill versus interpretive or social science leadership sectors 1960 African primary schoolchildren was 25 today it s 90 USE THIS NOT READING STAT The improvement in secondary school enrollment of eligible students has increased from 1960 5 to 30 which is still a little low and shows that most Africans don t go to secondary schools Africa has the highest population growth rate and fastest urban growth rate yet this poses resource and qualification problems Resource competition for a ballooning population in small spaces can lead to violent con ict Qualification issues can create major vicious cycles in education employment and development 0 Almost 40 of African adults are illiterate for youth it s 30 so it s not that bad 0 In con ict areas most children don t attend school 0 The biggest budget allocation of most African countries goes into the education system In some countries better government policies NGOs and local communities are improving the education situation One of the major trends after independence has been the change in curriculum from content that re ected the worldview of colonialism towards content that builds African nationalism and heritage appreciation There has been an Africanization of education which has been facilitated by using indigenous languages North African and Somali schools changed almost immediately to Arabic Many schools begin with the vernacular in the early years but switch to the colonial language after a few years because of administrative and globalization needs 0 The colonial language can also be a unifying language for most African countries where there are usually 3 ethnic groups African countries have devoted more attention to learning in school than in the workplace They ve done so by introducing vocational training or dividing time between school and apprenticeship 0 Universal primary education has not yet been achieved yet because they miscalculated population growth rates and so budgeted incorrectly And yet after all these efforts to increase education in the youth there is a high rate of unemployment This can deter youth in attending school if they can t even find a job after all this time spent in school Thursday March 19 Education Education is the key to the future government efforts to reduce adult illiteracy linking education to econ development featuring more Africanbased curriculum and devising new methods of indigenous education making it more Africa based Enrollment rate is linked to the degree of religious devoutness Islam amp Christianity NOT IN READING 0 Higher rates of literacy and higher rates of primary school enrollment in predominantly Christian amp Muslim countries At the time of independence and the time the study took time long after strongly Christian countries had higher rates of literacy and enrollment than strongly Islamic regardless of economic level or colonial background 0 Koranic schools madrasas are usually the educational option in predominantly Muslim communities 0 Possible relationship between poverty and religion SHINN BELIEVES RELIGION PLAYS A LESS SIGNIFICANT ROLE AND POVERTY PLAYS A MORE SIGNIFICANT ROLE Fontu Sharo Reading High drop out rates low quality of education unsustainable costs high unemployment amongst graduates and lots of urban gender disparity Initially postindependence governments tried to make curriculum and textbooks more relevant to African culture Vocational and secondary education was combined with professional work experience Post 1980s the focus was spending more on primary education than secondary African countries like Western states go through phases Educational reform is being called for now to be more fitting in a globalized world and technologicallyadvanced by 1 Careful spending of money 2 Improve quality vs quantity 3 Bring community together NGO parents government in the educational process 4 More jurisdictions to local authorities than broader authorities This is usual in the US but not common in Africa 5 Adopt new informational technologies African universities are in a crisis Reform is needed with more STEM studies as well as addressing the gender gap More resources must be devoted to research especially STEM Higher education Since independence university establishments have increased a lot Despite this Africa has the lowest collegiate enrollment globally It s a money issue for governments to support increased enrollment with decreased spending most of African universities are overcrowded and fail to meet the requirements needs of rising enrollment Traditionally universities provided healthcare housing subsidized meals and tuition with little to no cost to students However this was unsustainable so governments and schools had to cut these services Support staff jobs were also cut 0 Now usually the model is two classes of fullpaying students and government partial scholarship students best students or wellconnected kids 0 Professors usually have to supplement their salary by teaching at other schools Some universities have been forced to shut down due to the high costs and maintenance needs are usually ignored and life carries on with no roof or AC etc Quality amp Quantity article Challenges are Growing hostility to academic freedom in oneparty states rejection of colonial relations with prestigious universities French universities were not that popular in North Africa because they tried to remove French in uences and language in the university setting SAfrican university Kwazulu is trying to make Zulu as colloquial as English in school but it s resulted in skill gaps When you get to a job that needs you to be English uent you re proficient in 2 languages but uent in none World bank investment and emphasis on primary education is problematic because it actually decreases the quality of education Brain drain amongst Africa s intelligentsia African students studying abroad is 120000 but SHINN THINKS IT S VERY UNDERESTIMATED which is 15 of the continent s entire higher education population 0 After studies finish they usually stay overseas Why Better jobs desire to send remittances in a higher income paid in a stronger currency more certainty in life western areas for civil unrest amp political con ict and more room to grow professional research training Harsh economic conditions under which many professionals work the lack of appreciation of their work psychological dissatisfaction due to lack of resources and infrastructure Ranking article SAfrica has 7 of the top 10 African universities Cairo University is the top African university coming in around 200something place 9 University of Nairobi Kenya amp 10 University of Makerere Uganda Religion Although no African religions have sacred books the following phenomena are common to MOST BUT NOT ALL to the traditional religions 1 Belief in a supreme being 2 Belief in spiritdivinities 3 Belief in life after death 4 Have religious personnel amp places 5 Have an aspect of witchcraft amp magic Why do traditional religions have no books 0 They re just so old that when these religions emerged in their indigenous languages written language did not exist yet And they still don t really exist Contemporary reasons are oral history tradition and to compensate for low literacy rate The Supreme Being is the sustainer and creator of religion God s existence is a universal trait even if it may exist in varying forms Atheism is strange Supreme being is believed to have a host of supernatural powers and vary from religion to region They are male or female or both genders Worship is done through ancestral spirits critical feature of traditional African religions but are NOT the object of worship they are intermediaries of worship They are vehicles through which a living person can work with god through the ancestors Life after death is generally believed and can take different forms 0 Some traditions believe reincarnation as an animal or human descendant 0 Generally traditionalists believe in a world of ancestors so that when one dies one goes on a journey to get to that world Traditional religions have religious personnel and sacred places 0 Religious leaders vary in African traditional religions 0 Religious leaders can be male or female Another category of religious leadership is spirit mediums 0 Members of the clan or family who is the intermediary in spirit communication Spirit world communication is important for African communities such as speaking to see the reason for their misfortune problem and to do what 0 Palm nuts bowl of water bones wooden dice or pieces of ivory are common in these rituals 0 Places like caves mountains etc also serve as usual shrine locations Witches and sorcerers use their power for destroying life Belief in witchcraft is widespread even in educated Muslims and Christians Magic is usually used for protection from other witches individuals It can also be used by some to harm or kills others Kamaro Reading UNC professor who said Africans should shun Islam and Christianity in favor of traditional African religions because Christianity Islam and other religions are antitheses and not for Africans o Africans who are traditionalists usually practice in secret to avoid embarrassment Africans intuitively understand African traditional religion that require them to revere their ancestors and create civility good governance compassion freedom and identity which come from their African religion 0 Yet Africans are following Christianity and Islam which take away more than they give Christianity Christianity was first adopted in Egypt where it took root in the 1St century and is now known as the Coptic Church Christianity continued to be a vibrant religion until Muslims conquered the area in the 7th century Now Christians are a minority Christianity came next to Ethiopia in the 4th century Ethiopian Orthodox Church is the most thoroughlyAfrican church in its ethos The rest of Africanconversion came from Portugal in the 15th century from the Dominican and Iesuit persuasions who followed the Portuguese traders They brought imported Christianity to Africa as opposed to the indigenous kind that started in Egypt By the end of the 20th century Christianity was established in subSahara In the 19th amp 20th centuries Christianity and colonialism went hand in hand Some viewed this correlation as negative but missionaries did bring positive things like building schools wherever they went The first generation of educated Africans 9 leaders were students at these schools Many churches are adopting new and distinctly African forms 1 African Christians didn t find a significant African ethos It was usually too foreign 2 Missionaries lacked African symbols rituals and images 3 Missionaries amp colonists shared a common worldview and racism of Africans 4 Translation of bible into African languages allowed Africans to read and interpret for themselves 5 Indigenous churches are the response to the refusal or slowness of missionaries relinquishing church control to the locals 1St type developed Ethiopiantype churches because the Scriptures reference Ethiopia but not in Ethiopia I think 2rld type Spirit Zionist type and place a lot of emphasis on the words of the Holy Spirit It s trying to Africanize the faith New evangelical protestant churches are growing in popularity Often associated with Pentecostal and associations of God in the US Lutheran churches Scandinavia have taken a very strong African style Islam Conquered most of Egypt by the mid7th century Many Egyptian Copts welcomed Muslim Arab rule than Byzantine rule Moved to north Africa and defeated Christians who lived mostly in towns Gradual Islamization through Africa spread by conquest usually In some subSahara it was spread by peaceful missionary efforts by Muslimized Berber merchants who traded 0 Important distinction North African conquest of subSahara by traders and Muslim missionaries who worked peacefully with Muslim missionaries to set up mosques EAfrica Persian and Arab merchants spread it in the late 7th century By the 16th century Islam was the religion of the rulers and elites of many large African states Various Sufis attracted support by mobilizing resistance to European imperialism 0 Very African style and very contrary to the most traditional beliefs of Islam which has created a battled sense Islam seemed to be rather compatible and tolerant of most cultural practices like polygamy circumcision ancestral worship magic and belief in divinity Muslims were usually tolerant in adjusting customary law to Islamic law 0 Overall adaptable in conforming to Islamic law Legacy has endured and has produced an Africanized version of Islamic law which greatly differs to Middle Eastern Salafists and Wahhabis Islamic fundamentalism has not found many supporters in Africa Those attracted to Islamic fundamentalism are the young poor university students and intellectuals inspired by the idea of an Islamic state Mosques usually include many but churches can be rather dismissive of traditional religion Conversion to Islam and Christianity are continuing Africans are probably going to continue preserving some elements of their traditional faiths as they have always done 357 LOOK AT MAP Islam is majority religion of NAfrica Sahel part of WAfrica and along the east coast Christianity in the rest of Africa but small Muslim minorities 540 can be found The Pew Research Forum has done lots of great polling and a 20089 survey of 25000 subSaharan Africans in 19 countries shows a chart of sharp growth of Christians amp Muslims and the decline of traditional African religions 0 Followers of CampM were less than 25 in 1900 Now they re the overwhelming majority 0 Very few Africans are unaffiliated with any religion 0 If traditional religions and nonbelievers Christianity slightly more numerous than Muslim 5149ish ratio for all of Africa CALCULATIONS DONE BY SHINN 0 Survey also found that Muslims are significantly more positive in assessing Christians than vice versa 0 Both MampC support democracy but want legislation based on the Bible or Sharia law Religious extremism is a shared concern and there s very little switching between the two religions Christians vs Muslims Majorities in almost all religions say that Western media have harmed the morality of their countries but they also like it Most believe in the literal truth of their scriptures SubSaharan Africa is clearly one of the most religious places in the world


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