New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Mar 31 (Politics) & Apr 2 (Orgs)

by: Helen Jiang

Mar 31 (Politics) & Apr 2 (Orgs) IAFF 2093

Helen Jiang
GPA 3.26
Africa: Problems & Prospects
Ambassador David Shinn

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Full notes (news, lecture, discussion questions) for March 31st (Politics) and April 2nd (African Organizations). Notes have been fact-checked and clarified in office hours.
Africa: Problems & Prospects
Ambassador David Shinn
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Africa: Problems & Prospects

Popular in International Studies

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Helen Jiang on Friday May 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to IAFF 2093 at George Washington University taught by Ambassador David Shinn in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Africa: Problems & Prospects in International Studies at George Washington University.

Similar to IAFF 2093 at GWU

Popular in International Studies


Reviews for Mar 31 (Politics) & Apr 2 (Orgs)


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 05/01/15
Tuesday March 31 News Nigerian opposition candidate wins election and Goodluck Ionathan acknowledges it Egypt is considering going into Yemen along with a bunch of other Arab states Sierra Leone recommends people to stay home for 3 days but many people defied the order Guinea declared a new Ebola emergency in 5 regions 0 However Liberia s doing a good job controlling it AlShabaab attacked a hotel in Mogadishu killing 24 people 400000 IDPs in Yola Nigeria Complaints about Nigerian troops lack thereof from the Chadian President US hunter has been awarded a hunting license to hunt and import the rare black rhino in Namibia Kenyan President apologized for election violence crimes The ICC even charged him and his VP for them although they did drop charges against him a few weeks ago UN s leading peace talks for the con icting factions in Libya Egyptian names 18 members of the Muslim Brotherhood as terrorists Tunisian government claims it has decimated the extremist group ISIS that attacked the Tunis museum and killed 21 mostly European tourists Politics Most Important Individual Big Man theory Only the president is important which refers to the rule by the most senior person in the country for foreign policy This used to be true but is increasingly less true nowadays Resulted in highly centralized and personalized foreign policy machine that was dominated by the President or the Prime Minister Ethiopia 0 Cameroon Colbia Zimbabwe Mugabe Sudan alBashir Equatorial Guinea Obiang Iose Eduardo dos Santos Angola Boute ika Algeria Afewerki Eritrea King Mswati III Swaziland First generation African presidents often pursued foreign policies similar to their former colonial powers Oftentimes they were more receptive to following the colonial platform more common in Francophone colonies than addressing their constituents desires 0 Economic ties and educational training were heavily colonialdependent 0 19631993 France intervened militarily at least 30 times in their former colonies usually at the request of Presidents because of threat or reinstating a leader Democratization efforts 9 Individualized concerns 9 Pursuing independent foreign policy agendas 0 Also parliamentarylegislators expressed fear or apprehension in opposing a President s foreign policy agenda 0 Yet over time with the second and third generation leaders agendas are more independent and less Big Manlike How much has this democratization trend really impacted foreign policy 0 Domestic concern peaks during crises o Attempting to appear democratic for economic relations Organization of African Unity 1963 first panAfrican intergovernmental organization of independent countries based on African soil Addis Ababa Ethiopia It s now called the African Union However its effectiveness in playing a role in international relations has been questioned The 4 guiding principles are 1 Sanctity of borders from independence Support for territorial integrity of frontiers inherited during the colonial era Controversial because they say keep the borders at the time of independence despite how illogical they arequot to prevent further instability African leaders remain committed to maintaining the borders except for Eritrea and South Sudan have significant border change OAU recognizes Western Sahara and its one of the 54 members of OAU BUT Morocco disagreed and left Somaliland has declared unilateral independence since 1960 but hasn t been recognized by any government or org 2 Noninterference in internal affairs Con ict prevention and resolution consultative process Also African consensus for a multinational African defense force slow in formation which has been useful in interventions KenyanEthiopian troops in Somalia when it was a failed state Chadian troops in Nigeria against Boko Haram AU peacekeeping in Somalia 3 Peaceful settlement African Union encourages the peaceful settlement of all disputes by arbitration discussion consultation etc 4 Getting rid of colonialism and white minority rule Achieved African leaders have also created organizations that promote cooperation and integration 0 Subregion orgs Economic community of West African States ECOWAS Southern African Development Community SADC Intergovernmental Authority on Development IAGD and East African Community EAC 0 Created because of I Belief in strength in numbers smaller groupings that would have more in common I Desire to promote selfsustaining development and industrialization that s easier at a subregional level I Creating selfreliant development and ridding government of inherited postcolonial ties SADC was originally created as a way for southern African states to decrease dependence on white ruled South Africa SADC precedes African rule Several reasons of optimism for why SADC will succeed Engine for economic growth from South Africa s industrializing 1115 members share a common British colonial heritage end of Cold War eliminated ideological differences France has traditionally maintained the most extensive political and military relations with Africa 0 Libya CAR Mali and Commando Ridge in Somalia are examples of French intervention Cold War ending France decided to take an economic bailout the involved massive increase in foreign policy and the US decreased political military interests by increasing aid economic US has been hypocritical in its policy and its actions such as Equatorial Guinea and its horrendous human rights record but our interest in its oil prevents criticism Japan amp Germany emerged as economic leaders in Africa as did the UK The US was able to step in later and fill in the void as the UK stepped out Russia has shown some renewed interest in the continent over the past few years 0 RussoAfrican trade is half of TurkeyAfrican trade which shows the disproportionate trade relations Canada and Nordic countries have major aid and humanitarian presences in Africa Virtually every African country has an ambassador to the UN and Addis Ababa Ethiopia but not every African country has the resources to build an embassy in each African country IMF does short term stabilization loans for financial solvency 0 World Bank gives long term loans for economic development UN was active in anticolonial movement At the end of the Cold War it became more involved in Africa s ethnic con icts 0 19921995 UN intervention in Somalia was the largest involvement of foreign troops Currently 21500 African Uniononly soldiers stationed in Somalia 0 Rwanda genocide 0 Sudan and DRC peacekeeping o Ongoing operations in South Sudan Sudan DRC western Sahara Cote d Ivoire Mali Liberia CAR Great international reluctance for military engagement in Africa which has also affected its military training Discussion Questions Africa has been at the bottom of America s foreign policy list is this okay Who should be at the bottom of America s foreign policy list if not Africa Thursday April 2 News University Garissa Kenya attack where 147 died and many injured by alShabaab US removes weapons freeze against Egypt African Organizations AU NEPAD and African Development Bank are underfunded and spend resources modestly from already small resource network African Union Parliamentary union is not as strong as EU Formed because the Organization of African Unity OAU had organizational challenges to globalization underfunding and noncompliance with its authority Lasted from 19632002 African Union charter established in 2001 in Addis Ababa Ethiopia and beginning in 2002 in South Africa 0 AU s charter is a compromise between states that wanted stronger supranational organization and states that wanted to maintain key parts of their national sovereignty 0 World events led to the formation of the AU End of Cold War globalization rise of neoliberal economic ideology increased human rights efforts increased emphasis on democratic principles AU Charter includes additions that weren t in OAU Charter 0 Defend sovereignty and independence of member states 0 Pledge to promote democratic principles institutions and good governance while respecting democratic principles human rights rule of law good governance sanctity of life prolife policies 0 Balance economic development through the promotion of social justice Assembly is the supreme organ of the AU Holds a lot of power and approves the budget 130 million not much D0 READING ON THIS 0 5 countries provide 75 of budget Algeria Egypt Libya Nigeria and South Africa Executive Council Foreign minister deals with foreign trade and education policies It prepares agendas for African heads of state PanAfrican Parliament Has an advisory role and works on the views of African people It s currently based in South Africa 0 Each member state has 5 legislators and 20 of positions have to be female Economic Cultural and Social Council Handles rule of law human rights and good governance Security Council Reviews and decides on critical issues and is more active than EconomicCultural Social Council Commission Based in Addis Ababa Ethiopia it s the bureaucracy of the AU but lacks professionalism AU hasn t done much besides creating electionmonitoring groups promoting rule of law and constitutionalism compliance denouncing military dictatorship Guinea Cote d Ivoire Mali and Mauritania have been temporarily suspended from the AU 0 Not effective in dealing with corruption has not empowered human rights institutions 0 Lost Moroccan membership when AU accepted Western Sahara 0 AU makes many decisions but implements few Also often has overlapping portfolios o Condemning military coups by AU and not OAU New Partnership for Africa s Development NEPAD Foundation for 21St century African development Founded in Zambia in 2001 and currently under AU authority wasn t before Its goals are 1 2 3 Reduce poverty Promote sustainable development and growth Integrate Africa into world economy Reduce risk of doing business in Africa create conducive business environment create multilateral institutions increase African competitiveness increase investment in Africa Too early to judge its effectiveness African Development Bank Works to improve service delivery and financing for countries Post2001 focus to support regional strategies in reducing con ict 1 2 3 Build governancecapacity and reconstruct fragile states infrastructure Improve country payments especially for fragile states in debt Provide management for fragile states Bank s disadvantages O O O 0 Only seeks technical solutions Funding can inadvertently strengthen the dominance of those currently in power Program prioritizes country performance over country needs Lacks effective coordination with donors


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.