Apr 21-23 (Latin America)
Apr 21-23 (Latin America) GEOG 3120
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Helen Jiang on Friday May 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 3120 at George Washington University taught by Joe Dymond in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 136 views. For similar materials see World Regional Geography in Geography at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 05/01/15
Tuesday April 21 Hawaii cont d When you visit the national park you have to park your car and walk over dried lava to get to the edge 0 Looks very lunar very sharp from bits of glass and you want to get to the edge by dusk so you can see glowing pockets of lava on your way back Big Island is getting bigger Northeast slopes of the islands get hammered by rain storms as winds move east to west in tropics 0 But you could drive an hour away and be in the desertlike western sides The Kona airport west side of Big Island is the more dependable one Rainbow capital of the world because there s always sun and rain in close proximity Altitudinal zonation and microclimate variation is very present due to elevation wind direction and latitude Latin America amp North America Physical Geography Western parts of North and South America are part of the Pacific Rim and are very earthquakeprone 80 magnitude Mexico City earthquake in 1985 that was exacerbated by being a city partially built on valley oor of dried lake sediment which is soft and unstable San FranciscoOakland Loma Prieta earthquake in 1989 had a 69 magnitude underground wave and a 71 magnitude surface wave A twotier expressway pancaked layers smashed into each other North American Climate AlaskaMajority of Canada Boreal and tundra climates with long frost and a short growing season prolonged by the high latitude 0 Coast is oceanic boreal because of the wind currents Southern CanadaMajority of US Temperate continental climate 0 Eastern twothirds of the US gets moisture mostly from the Gulf of Mexico This moisture is crucial for powerful eastern storms o Remaining third is dry especially the southwest where it s desert steppe 0 Southern CanadaPacific NW Oceanic temperate climate Southern California Mediterranean climate South American Climate Mexico Desertsteppe Southern MexicoIsthmus of Panama Tropical and seasonally or always wet South America Amazon Tropical rainforest that covers southern Venezuela Guyana French Guiana Suriname and a bit of Peru It s very wet and warm throughout the year Monsoon belt in the middle has the highest rainfall Brazil Seasonally wet Coastal area is very wet then get drier the more inland you go because of the rain shadow 0 Eastern winds from the Atlantic move into the continent in tropical latitudes 0 Eastern side of central Andes Rain amp snow 0 Atacama Desert other side Dry because of rain shadow Also because Pacific cold air brings no moisture as it doesn t rise up to become precipitation Southern Chilean coast Very wet because you re out of the tropics and the wind moves west to east 0 All wind moves west east in temperate o Easterly usually in tropics north and south of equator 0 Northern Chile dry 0 Rain shadow eastern side of Argentina Rivers South America Amazon River 4000 miles long Nile is 4160 but some people argue the Amazon is longer if you count tributaries further back in the Andes It s the world s largest river by volume largest watershed most inlandreaching navigability river and is the river with the most tributaries 0 It s very navigable as large oceangoing vessels can go to Manaus which is about the middle top of Brazil The farthest inland that is reasonably navigable is 2300 miles in at Iquitos Peru by smaller oceangoing vessels 0 Amazon River is made up of lots of tributaries runoff from Guiana highlands high rainfall and a river basin bigger than the land area of Europe 0 Guiana highlands goes across these 3 countries below area 23 venezula amp northernmost amazon brazil 0 Clarification GUYANA English SURINAME dutch FRENCH GUIANA territory Tropical Rain Forests The Amazon Vegetation Soil and Water Amazon is very important to humanity and health Its composition is very different from temperate forests because up to 90 of area s nutrition is held in the vegetation and most of the water is held in plants Temperate forests store nutrients in the soil and hold 75 of moisture in soil 0 Rain forest soil because decomposition is SO fast it gets sucked right back into plants 0 Soil tends to be very poor and nutrientdeficient Nutrients are processed very quickly nutrient leeching and decomposition happens quickly because it s warm and wet o Majority of water is held in plants not stored in soil 34 of moisture or more Biodiversity Some of the highest degrees of biodiversity in the world where one can find thousands of species in a small area However it s highly localized nature means any small change in area can lead to major changes in plants Healthcare amp Medicine Pharmaceuticals related to rainforest species generate billions every year Some medicines have been artificially produced in labs but others still require the original plants 0 Rainforest fragility and sustainability puts a lot at risk because if clear the rainforest and it doesn t come back we may be losing species vital to medicine Carbon sink Area that naturally absorbs a lot of carbon from the lower atmosphere ex vegetation 0 Problem is that deforestation removes carbon sinks and is exacerbated by increasing carbon dioxide production Evapotranspiration Moisture evaporates off of vegetation because it s so warm 9 Rain forests create much of their own rain 9 1 acre of rain forest will put as much moisture back into the atmosphere as 1 acre of lake Swidden Slash and burn Nutrition is in vegetation not soil so burning vegetation 9 nutrientrich ash on top of soil 9 good for 12 years before nutrients are used up 9 land goes fallow rest for 810 years to replenish 9 in the meantime clear another area 9 variation in what grows back cleared land is usually turned into cattle grazing ranges that don t allow rainforest Commercial agriculture amp development is the biggest largest threat to the rainforest 0 Brazil is a rapidly rising economy and they are pushing to become an economic powerhouse but other countries are very concerned about deforestation and loss of the tropical rain forest Amazon River Delta forms islands when it reaches the ocean Deforestation Visible linear pattern occurs where they build road where trees were cut down and then branch off for settlements business plantations etc Rivers Orinoco River 1590mile long major river of northern South America that starts in Guiana Highlands owing east to west It forms part of the border between Venezuela and Colombia It s navigable up to 260 miles inland to Cuidad Bolivar o Cuidad Bolivar and Cuidad Guyana are the the primary industrial centers in Orinoco Basin Mississippi River 2340 miles long running from Minnesota to NOLA delta it s the longest river has the largest drainage system in North America and has the greatest volume of water in North America Navigable up to 230 miles inland Baton Rouge before the Huey Long bridge that blocks large boats 0 Upper part originates in Minnesota while lower part originates in Pittsburgh 0 One of 3 major rivers in the US Missouri converges with Mississippi near St Louis while the Ohio converges with Mississippi in southern Illinois 0 Eastern slopes of Rockies and Western slopes of Appalachians drain into the MIssissippi basin which creates the biggest North American drainage basin Colorado River 1450 miles long originating in the Rocky Mountains of western Colorado It ows through or borders 7 southwestern states Wyoming Colorado Utah Nevada Arizona New Mexico and California before owing into Mexico in northernmost area of the Gulf of California 0 US agreed to limit use of river allowing certain amounts to freely ow into Mexico but the US hasn t really honored that agreement as the southwest is very dry and claim they need as much water as possible 0 Many lakes and dams along the river which created the Grand Canyon for irrigation Panama The country is an odd Sshape because Panama is oriented more diagonally than North America the Atlantic is north not east for Panama 0 Panama Canal goes from Colon Atlantic north side to Panama City Pacific south side along the narrowest place between two major ocean basins and continents I 30100 miles wide isthmus land bridge 0 Geography is destinyquot philosophy was what the US used to liberate Panama from Colombia with ulterior motives to build a canal there under an independent and indebted Panama I A UScontrolled area within a country would give Americans control over it for a long time I Globalization Colonial to present Connects Americas north amp south where 2 ocean systems join narrowest place in the Americas between oceans major ship Thursday April 23 Dymond s Office Hours Gravity Mountain rain 9 Chagres river amp system 9 Canal built in Chagres valley amp Rio Grande valley 9 Damned with locks 9 Water all ends up in the oceans Panama s big 5 economies 1 Colon free trade zone Shipping industry containers Transit fee toll revenue Banking amp finance from money transfers Tourism 914990 History of Panama 1903 Independence facilitated by Teddy Roosevelt o Sovereign Panama for US interests which is separate from Colombia 1914 Canal completed 19041979 Canal zone administered by the US Its very direct presence lasted for decades as it was maintained like a real piece of US territory Canal Zone Roughly 5 miles on either side of the canal it s like a state within a state The US army appoints a governor for the area US invested heavily in this zone and the surrounding region with infrastructure roads rail piped water etc and very clean drinking water in Panama City 19791999 Incremental transition to smaller canal area under US control and then gradually turned it over to Panamanian government Panama Canal Treaties September 7 1977 Carter amp Torrilos at the Organization of American States It was a gradual turnover of control that finished December 31 1999 when the US military had to be completely out of the area by then 0 WILL BE ON TEST Treaty of Permanent Neutrality The US can act unilaterally if it thinks there s a threatening reason and can just invade at any time 0 Late 1980s invasion because of fear of Noriega a Panamanian dictator from the 1980s 0 Panama controls the canal today make all the money 10 years after it was signed we didn t like Noreiga so we got rid of him because it was threat Panama soverign area but international transit zone Panama Physical Geography Highlands and mountains east of the canal with rainforests closer to the canal 0 Very high rainfall that drains through canal basin and out into both oceans o Chagres River is essential to the canal because it originates in the rainforest and merges with other tributaries Lake Gatun Manmade lake between canal locks o Locks are like water steps that help life ships up above sea level or back down 0 Canal runs entirely on gravity there are no electric pumps Canal was built on the narrowest part of the isthmus and where there already was a natural river basin However they had to blast through certain parts Artificial island in the middle of Lake Gatun is the Smithsonian tropical research center Canal sits on two blocks that are smaller plates that don t feel as much geologic activity but there s still a transform boundary right where the canal is ISN T THIS DANGEROUS o Earthquakes are less frequent despite significant earthquake activity in the surrounding north and south area No active volcanoes in Panama but a few in Nicaragua Outside of intertropical convergence zone so no hurricanes either because Panama is too far south 0 The area from Nicaragua up is where hurricanes can strike Watershed extends very far from the canal in either direction east and west Panama Human Geography Country population 39 million Panama city 800000 people in the actual city which is part of the total 13 million in metro o 1 3 of Panamanian population lives in the city metro area along the Pacific side of the canal It s a very cosmopolitan city Colon 2nd most important city in the canal zone It s on the Atlantic side of the canal and has 50000 people 75 of country is urban US 81 50 of people live in the belt along the canal from Colon to Panama City 0 David 2nd LARGEST city with 145000 people and it s outside of the canal zone Eastern Panama is rather empty Panama City is where peninsula and has lots of tall buildings It s Colombianbuilt and is a controversial physical representation of drug money 0 Lots of the large buildings are shells because no one uses them It s just a repository of laundered money 0 Lots of investment from Colombia because wealthier families like to have second homes in Panama safer Migration in Panama Canal construction created migration streams from Jamaica Barbados and other Caribbean locations Southern Europe Asia Canal administration and contemporary business development key shipping area migration streams from US Colombia Europe Taiwan key initial investors in Colon free trade zone Middle East Ethnicity in Panama Mixed Mestizo amp Mulatto 70 0 African heritage 14 European heritage 10 Indigenous Guna people 6 0 Progressive indigenous rights 0 Panama has better conditions than most Central South American countries Geographic amp Spatial Dichotomy Canal zone urban service oriented economy High literacy low infant mortality higher wages netter health care access and better access to the rest of the world Outside of canal zone Rural agrarian lower socioeconomic indicators and less connected to the rest of the world Agriculture Coffee palm oil rice bananas sugar citrus fruits o 25 of population is agrarian mostly subsistence farmers growing enough for themselves 0 Crops makes up 10 of GDP West of canal zone Western Panama upland coffee coastal palm oil rice East of canal zone Darien region with extremely dense vegetation undeveloped swampland and forest 0 PanAm Highway doesn t pass through here because it stops in Panama before the canal 0 However drugs pass through this area a lot Efforts to keep it a buffer zone between drug trafficking in Colombia to places north of it haven t really worked Business amp Free Trade Panama City 0 Banking and finance supported by decades of US investment and in uence 0 Canalrelated administration and services because this is a major shipping zone 0 Free press 0 Tourism growth Lots of tourism investment as it appeals to history buffs rain forest lovers and competes with Costa Rica s biodiversity same and water Real estate investment Many Colombian and American second homeowners or retirees It s great bang for your buck good healthcare and very secure 1977 USbacking agreement O o Maritime services Largest merchant marine registry in the world I It has ags of convenience 9 lower regulation and taxes 9 foreigners want to register their ships as Panamanian to get the benefits Shipping infrastructure is great support for repairs and services so why not register here if you ll have to go through it eventually Colon Free Trade Zone Taiwanese businessmen investors building investment revenue and trade relations and benefits with suppliers Northern Caribbean city of Colon Atlantic basin 2rld largest free trade zone in the world after Hong Kong 1600 businesses founded 11 billion in annual sales 14000 jobs created It s continuing to expand by adding facilities and services Key things produced here in bulk Clothing furniture watches jewelry school supplies toys and bikes 0 You have to be a business person with an established relationship there to buy things because it s gated off and secured Instability amp Drugs Major transshipment point for narcotics from South America PanAmerican highway is interrupted here Dense Darien area that s supposed to be a natural antiColombian defense system but backfired lack of governance infrastructure and law
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