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Clinton, Bush, Obama

by: Amaris Mae

Clinton, Bush, Obama HIST 2340W

Amaris Mae
GPA 3.75
History of US Diplomacy

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Last week of notes! Primary sources are in blue, lecture notes are in black, and highlighted sections are what the professor emphasized
History of US Diplomacy
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This 24 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amaris Mae on Saturday May 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2340W at George Washington University taught by Brazinsky in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 76 views. For similar materials see History of US Diplomacy in History at George Washington University.


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Date Created: 05/02/15
Bill Clinton and Globalization Elected in 1992 Mainly to improve the economy Domestic problems were the priority Also problems with rogue states like Iraq and Korea Challenges US power and regional stability Humanitarian Action There had been no precedent for the US to involve itself in humanitarian affairs Other than Jimmy Carter Which didn39t always run smoothly and actually moved many towards an isolationist policy Unwanted US calls to action We re drawing more attention than the economy Clinton wanted to ensure economic growth in the US Wanted to integrate former communist states into the global economy US economy rebounded Gave Clinton a higher approval rating And thus more exibility For most of the 19905 the US was the world39s only superpower Talbot sovereignty of independent governed was not absolute If they denied basic rights the international community would step in Ex Somalia 1991 Civil war between war lords Widespread starvation UNOSOM l in 1992 Peacekeeping mission selfdefense and food aid UNOSOM II in 1993 Added nation building to the mission statement Challenged by warlord Aidid Constant skirmishes Black Hawk Down 1993 US fought Somali forces at Mogadishu US was supported by UNISOM II The goal was to secure two of Aidid39s lieutenants But in the meanwhile after skirmishes began the armed civilian ghters shot down two UH60 Black Hawk helicopters The rescue operation was supposed to take a 1 turned into an overnight standoff 18 American soldiers died Sources say either 315 Somalis killed by Somali numbers or somewhere between 1500 and 3000 Somali casualties US numbers Shattered foreign policy con dence Clinton announced planned withdrawal Haiti 1991 Coup that took out the democratically elected leader Aristide was ousted Large amount of Haitian refugees to the US US worried it would look wake not to protect democracy in the western hemisphere In 1993 the UN authorized use of force to remove June from power Clinton started to amass forces CarterNunnPowell mission to Haiti Junto agrees to step down Aristide regains power Breakup of Yugoslavia Ethnic nationalism Constant wars between dominant Serbs and other ethnic groups Situation in Bosnia was especially bad Nat air strikes against Serbians to force negotiations 9 Dayton Accords o Federation of US BosniaHerzegovinian C Bosnia US cannot step back from responsibly of world leadership in globalized world problem spread 19971998 Kosovo and Albania Both are also seeking independence Serbs try to suppress them Accusation of genocide NATO bombing campaign against Serbs Kosovo was made a protectorate of the UN But was legally a part of Serbia 9 Merged humanitarian concern with willingness to use force 9 Support for economic integration and globalization and the use of institutions NAFTA Open up trade relations between Canada US Nan Mexico No more barriers Had to get through the senate Some concern over outsourcing ofjobs Also concerns of increased immigration Perrot vs Gore debate WTO create enforcement an interlunation body for countries to air their dispute Clinton created a supportive bilateral coalitions Mexican peso crisis postNAFTA Clinton created a packed to bail out the peso Was successful Asian Financial crisis of 1997 Thailand and S Korean currency failure International bailout Not enough for South Korea Clinton encouraged bankers to support South Korea China Tried to enter the international community Joined WTO Improved trade with China Begged questions about what kind of power China would be In Kosovo the Chinese embassy was accidentally bombed People were not happy about this Breakdown in US of liberal39s vs conservatives 1999 WTO meeting in Seattle Antiglobalization protests Protest response recent globalization in improving quality of life and stability of world Didn t pay enough attention to the problems created by globalization Remarks by the President to the luncheon in honor of the Ministers attending the Meetings of the World Trade Organization The White House Of ce of the Press Secretary Seattle Washington For Immediate Release December 1 1999 The Four Seasons Hotel Seattle Washington 305 PM PST THE PRESIDENT Thank you very much Ambassador Barshefsky thank you for your remarks and your work Ladies and gentlemen we have a very large delegation from our administration here today and I hope its evidence to you of our seriousness of purpose I thank the Commerce Secretary Bill Daley the Agriculture Secretary Dan Glickman our SBA Administrator Aida Alvarez my National Economic Councilor Gene Sperling Ambassador Esserman and my Chief of Staff John Podesta all of whom are here and I thank them I want to say that I agree that Mike Moore is the ideal person to head the WTO because he has a sense of humor and boy do we need it right now Laughter Did you see the gentleman holding up the big white napkin here before we started He was doing that to get the light for the television cameras But he was standing here hold the napkin and Mike whispered to me he said well after yesterday that could be the ag of the WTO Laughter We39ll have rolling laughter as the translation gets through here Let me begin by saying welcome to the United States and to one of our most wonderful cities We are honored to have you here on a very important mission Today I want to talk a little bit about the work that we39re all here to do launching a new WTO round for a new century a new type of round that I hope will be about jobs development and broadly shared prosperity and about improving the quality of life as well as the quality of work around the world an expanded system of rule based trade that keeps pace with the changing global economy and the changing global society Let me begin by saying that seven years ago when I had the honor to become President of the United States sat down alone and sort of made a list of the things that I hoped could be done to create the kind of world that I wanted our children to live in in the new century To achieve that kind of world I thought it was very important that the United States support the increasing unity of Europe and the expansion of the European Union Important to 21St century We need a cooperative China with free trade China will realize that openness is to their advantage And I thought it was important that we give people mechanisms by which they could work toward a shared prosperity which is why we wanted to nish the last WTO round why we are working hard with our friends in Europe on a Stability Pact for the Balkans why we know economics must be a big part of the Middle East peace process why we have an AsianPaci c Economic Forum where the leaders meet why we39ve had two Summits of the Americas with our friends in Latin America why we39re trying to pass the Africa and Caribbean Basin Trade Initiatives and why I believe it is imperative that we here succeed in launching a new trade round that can command broad support among ordinary citizens in all our countries and take us where we want to go There are negative forces l have tried to combat in addition to the forces of hatred based on ethnic or religious difference the terrorists the problems of disease and poverty which I hope that the large debt relief initiative that we are pushing will help to alleviate But in the end all of these changes in my view will only give us the world we want where the poorest countries have children that can at least live through childhood and where the boys as well as the girls can go to school and then have a chance to make a decent living where countries with governance problems can work through them where wealthy countries can continue to prosper but do so in a way that is more responsible to helping those who still have a long way to go economically and where together we can meet our common responsibilities to human needs to the environment to the cause of world peace we will not get that done unless we can prove for all of our domestic political dif culties and all of our honest differences we still believe that we can have an interdependent global economy that runs alongside our interdependent international information society The Protesters And we are called upon here to meet against a background of a lot of people coming here to protest Some of them I think have a short memory or maybe no memory of what life was like in most of your countries not so very long ago So let me say again condemn the small number who were violent and who tried to prevent you from meeting But I39m glad the others showed up because they represent millions of people who are now asking questions about whether this enterprise in fact will take us all where we want to go And we ought to welcome their questions and be prepared to give an answer because if we cannot create an interconnected global economy that is increasing prosperity and genuine opportunity for people everywhere then all of our political initiatives are going to be less successful So I ask you to think about that When I hear the voices outside the meeting rooms I disagree with a lot of what they say but I39m still glad they39re here Why Because their voices now count in this debate For 50 years one of the reasons I said we needed a leader like Mr Moore with a sense of humor because for 50 years global trade even though there were always con icts you know the United States and Japan they39re our great friends and allies We39re always arguing about something But to be fair it was a con ict that operated within a fairly narrow band For 50 years trade decisions were largely the province of trade ministers heads of government and business interests But now what all those people in the street tell us is that they would also like to be heard And they39re not so sure that this deal is working for them Some of them say well and by the way they39re kind of like we are a lot of them are in con ict with each other right Because a lot of them say well this is not a good thing for the developing countries They haven39t bene ted as much as they should have while the wealthy countries have grown wealthier in this information society Others say well even if you39re growing the economy you39re hurting the environment And still others say well companies may be getting rich in some of these poorer countries but actual working laboring people are not doing so well And others have other various and sundry criticisms of what we have done Response to the Protesters I would like to say rst of all I think we need to do a betterjob of making the basic case No one in this room can seriously argue that the world would have been a better place today if our forebears over the last 50 years had not done their work to bring us closer together Whatever the problems that exist in whatever countries represented here whatever the legitimacy of any of the criticism against us this is a stronger more prosperous world because we have worked to expand the frontiers of cooperation and reduce the barriers to trade among people And we need to reiterate our conviction that that is true If we were all out here going on our own we would not be as well off in the world as we are Secondly at the end of the Cold War I am sure everyone in this room has been struck by the cruel irony that in this most modern of ages when the Internet tells us everything as Mr Moore said when we are solving all the problems of the human gene and we will soon know what39s in the black holes in the universe it is truly ironic when the biggest problems of human societies are the oldest ones those rooted in our fear of those who are different from us different races different ethnic groups different tribes different religions All over the world people consumed by differences When people are working together for common prosperity in a rulebased system they have big incentives to lay the differences down and join hands to work together So if we just make those two points to our critics I think it39s very important Number one the world is a better place than it would have been had we not had the last 50 years of increasing economic cooperation for trade and investment And number two the world of the future will be a safer place if we continue to work together in a rulebased system that offers enormous incentives for people to nd ways to cooperate and to give up their old hatreds and their impulses to violence and war What next Now having said that we now have to say what next I think we have to acknowledge a responsibility particularly those of us in the wealthier countries to make sure that we are working harder to see that the bene ts of the global economy are more widely shared among and within countries that it truly works for ordinary people who are doing the work for the rest of us I think we also have to make sure that the rules make sense and that we39re continuing to make progress notwithstanding the domestic political dif culties that every country will face We all bene t when the rules are clear and fair I think that means we have to cut tariffs further on manufactured goods and set equally ambitious goals for services I think we should extend our moratorium on e commerce I think we should treat agriculture as we treat other sectors of the economy But we all have domestic political constraints Everybody knows that I think we have to leave this luncheon saying in spite of that we39re going to nd some way to keep moving forward because the world will be a better place and the world will be a safer place Improved Trade Opportunities for Developing Countries Note by Peter Wiletts There seems to be imprecision in distinguishing Least Developed from other Developing Countries Now let me offer a few observations of what I hope will be done First I think we have to do more to ensure that the least developed countries have greater access to global markets and the technical assistance to make the most of it Director General Moore has dedicated himself and this organization to extending the bene ts of trade to the least developed countries and I thank you for that sir Here in Seattle 32 developing nations are moving toward admission to the WTO EU President Prodi and I have discussed this whole issue and I have assured him and I assure you that the United States is committed to a comprehensive program to help the poorest nations become full partners in the world trading system This initiative which we are working on with the EU Japan and Canada would enhance market access for products from the least developed countries consistent with our GSP preference access program and our Africa and Caribbean Basin Initiatives which I am glad to report are making good progress through the United States Congress Building on our recent collaboration with Senegal Lesotho Zambia Bangladesh and Nigeria we would also intensify our efforts to help developing countries build the domestic institutions they need to make the most of trade opportunities and to implement WTO obligations This afternoon I will meet with heads of international organizations that provide traderelated technical assistance and ask them to help in this effort And I will say this I do believe after the Uruguay Round when we set up this system that we did not pay enough attention to the internal capacitybuilding in the developing nations that is necessary to really play a part in the global economy And I am prepared to do my part to rectify that omission We also must help these countries avert the health and pollution costs of the industrial age We have to help them use clean technologies that improve the economy the environment and health care at the same time And I will just give one example AIDS Intellectual Property and Health Today is World AIDS day And today the USTR our trade representative and the Department of Health and Human Services are announcing that they are committed to working together to make sure that our intellectual property policy is exible enough to respond to legitimate public health crises Intellectual property protections are very important to a modern economy but when HIV and AIDS epidemics are involved and like serious health care crises the United States will henceforward implement its health care and trade policies in a manner that ensures that people in the poorest countries won39t have to go without medicine they so desperately need I hope this will help South Africa and many other countries that we are committed to support in this regard More generally this new round should promote sustainable development in places where hunger and poverty still stoke despair We know counties that have opened their economies to the world have also opened the doors to opportunity and hope for their own people Where barriers have fallen by and large living standards have risen and democratic institutions have become stronger We have to spread that more broadly The Need for Public Participation So secondly I want to say what I said at the WTO in Geneva last year I think it is imperative that the WTO become more open and accessible While other international organizations have sought and not shied from public participation when that has happened public support has grown If the WTO expects to have public support grow for our endeavors the public must see and hear and in a very real sense actually join in the deliberations That39s the only way they can know the process is fair and know their concerns were at least considered We39ve made progress since I issued this challenge in Geneva last year but I believe there39s more work to be done from opening the hearingroom doors to inviting in a more formal fashion public comment on trade disputes Now look let me just say I know there39s a lot of controversy about this And as all of you know I39m about to enter the last year of my presidency I will not be around to deal with the aftermath But I39m telling you I39ve been in this business a long time And in the end we all serve and function at the sufferance of the people either with their active support or their silent acquiescence What they are telling us in the streets here is this was an issue we used to be silent on We39re not going to be silent on it anymore We haven39t necessarily given up on trade but we want to be heard The sooner the WTO opens up the process and lets people representing those who are outside in the sooner we will see fewer demonstrations more constructive debate and a broader level of support in every country for the direction that every single person in this room knows that we ought to be taking into the let century So we can do it a little bit now and a little bit later We can drag our feet or we can run through an open door But my preference is to open the meetings open the records and let people le their opinions No one no sensible person expects to win every argument and no one ever does But in a free society people want to be heard And human dignity and political reality demand it today Core Labour Standards Third as l have said repeatedly I believe the WTO must make sure that open trade does indeed lift living standards respects core labor standards that are essential not only to worker rights but to human rights That39s why this year the United States has proposed that the WTO create a working group on trade and labor To deny the importance of these issues in a global economy is to deny the dignity of work the belief that honest labor fairly compensated gives meaning and structure to our lives I hope we can af rm these values at this meeting I am pleased that tomorrow I will sign the ILO Convention to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor And I thank the United States Senate on a bipartisan basis for supporting us in this I believe the WTO should collaborate more closely with the ILO which has worked hard to protect human rights to ban child labor I hope you will do this Let me say in all candor I am well aware that a lot of the nations that we most hope to support the developing nations of the world have reservations when the United States says we support bringing labor concerns into our trade debate And I freely acknowledge that if we had a certain kind of rule then protectionists in wealthy countries could use things like wage differentials to keep poorer countries down to say okay you opened your markets to us now we39ll sell to you But you39re selling to us and we want to keep you down so we39ll say you39re not paying your people enough The answer to that is not to avoid this labor issue not when there39s still child labor all over the world not when there are still oppressive labor practices all over the world not when there is still evidence in countries that ordinary people are not bene ting from this The answer is not to just throw away the issue The answer is to write the rules in such a way that people in our position the wealthier countries can39t do that can39t use this as an instrument of protectionism We can nd a way to dothb But there is a sense of solidarity all over the world among ordinary people who get up every day will never be able to come to a luncheon like this do their work raise their children pay their taxes form the backbone of every nation represented here They deserve basic fundamental decency And the progress of global trade should re ect also in their own lives I do not want the United States or any other country now or later to be able to use this as a shield for protectionism But to pretend that it is not a legitimate issue in many countries is another form of denial which I believe will keep the global trading system from building the public support it deserves The Environment and Trade Finally we must work to protect and to improve the environment as we expand trade Two weeks ago signed an executive order requiring careful environmental review of our major trading agreements early enough to make a difference including the input of the public and outside experts and considering genuinely held concerns We stand ready to cooperate as you develop similar systems and to integrate the environment more fully into trade policy We are committed to nding solutions which are winwin that bene t both the economy and the environment open trade and cuttingedge clean technologies which I believe will be the next industrial revolution We will continue to support WTO rules that recognize a nation39s right to take sciencebased health safety and environmental measures even when they39re higher than international standards Now I want to say something about this Again I know there are some people who believe my concern and the concern of the United States about the environment is another way that somehow we can keep the developing countries down That is not true There are basically two great clusters of environmental issues facing the world today First there are the local issues faced primarily by the developing nations healthy water systems and sewer systems systems to restrict soil erosion and to otherwise promote the public health It is in everyone39s interest to help those things to be installed as quickly and ef ciently as possible But the real issue that affects us all that prompts my insistence that we put this issue on the agenda is global warming and the related issue of the loss of species in the world as a consequence of global warming And the difference in this issue and previous environmental issues is this once the greenhouse gases get in the atmosphere they take a long time 100 years or more to dispel Therefore one nation39s policy including ours and we are now the largest emitter of greenhouse gases in the United States We won39t be long but we are now But we have to do something about this And I want to say to you what I said to the people at our table There is now clear and compelling scienti c technological evidence that it is no longer necessary for a poor country growing rich to do so by emitting more greenhouse gas emissions Or in plainer language a nation can develop a middle class and develop wealth without burning more oil and coal in traditional manners This is a sea change in the reality that existed just a few years ago And let39s be candid most people don39t believe it A lot of people in our country don39t believe it But in everything from transportation to manufacturing to the generation of electricity to the construction of buildings it is now possible to grow an economy with much less injury to the atmosphere with available technologies And within ve years breathtaking changes in the way automobile engines work and in the way fuel is made especially from biomass will make these trends even more clear I do not believe the United States has the right to ask India or Pakistan or China or any other country to give up economic growth But I do believe that all of us can responsibly say if you can grow at the same rate without doing what we did that is fouling the environment and then cleaning it up Mr Kono remembers I remember the rst time I went to Tokyo over 20 years ago people wore masks riding their bicycles around And now the air there is cleaner than it is in my home town in Arkansas What is the difference now It is not just a national issue If you foul the atmosphere and then you later clean it up the greenhouse gases are still up there and they39ll be there for 100 years warming the climate Now we do not have a right to ask anybody to give up economic growth But we do have a right to say if we39re prepared to help you nance a different path to growth and we can prove to you and you accept on the evidence that your growth will be faster not smaller that you39ll have more good jobs more new technology a broader base for your economy then I do believe we ought to have those kind of environmental standards And we ought to do it in a voluntary way with available technologies But we ought to put environment at the core of our trade concerns Conclusion Now I don39t know if I39ve persuaded any of you about any of this But I know one thing this is a better world than it would have been if our forebears hadn39t done this for the last 50 years If we39re going to go into the next 50 years we have to recognize that we39re in a very different environment We39re in a total information society where information has already been globalized and citizens all over the world have been empowered And they are knocking on the door here saying let us in and listen to us This is not an elite process anymore this is a process we want to be heard in So I implore you let39s continue to make progress on all the issues where clearly we can Let39s open the process and listen to people even when we don39t agree with them We might learn something and they39ll feel that they39ve been part of a legitimate process And let39s continue to nd ways to prove that the quality of life of ordinary citizens in every country can be lifted including basic labor standards and an advance on the environmental front If we do this then 50 years from now the people who will be sitting in all these chairs will be able to have the same feelings about you that Mr Moore articulated our feelings for the World War II generation Thank you very much and welcome again Applause Clinton s Address to the Nation on Somalia Today I want to talk with you about our Nation39s military involvement in Somalia A year ago we all watched with horror as Somali children and their families lay dying by the tens of thousands dying the slow agonizing death of starvation a starvation brought on not only by drought but also by the anarchy that then prevailed in that country This past weekend we all reacted with anger and horror as an armed Somali gang desecrated the bodies of our American soldiers and displayed a captured American pilot all of them soldiers who were taking part in an international effort to end the starvation of the Somali people themselves These tragic events raise hard questions about our effort in Somalia Why are we still there What are we trying to accomplish These questions deserve straight answers Let39s start by remembering why our troops went into Somalia in the rst place We went because only the United States could help stop one of the great human tragedies of this time A third of a million people had died of starvation and disease Twice that many more were at risk of dying Meanwhile tons of relief supplies piled up in the capital of Mogadishu because a small number of Somalis stopped food from reaching their own countrymen President Bush sent in 28000 American troops as part of a United Nations humanitarian mission Our troops created a secure environment so that food and medicine could get through We saved close to one million lives And throughout most of Somalia everywhere but in Mogadishu life began returning to normal Crops are growing Markets are reopening So are schools and hospitals Nearly a million Somalis still depend completely on relief supplies but at least the starvation is gone And none of this would have happened without American leadership and America39s troops Until June things went well with little violence The United States reduced our troop presence from 28000 down to less than 5000 with other nations picking up where we left off But then in June the people who caused much of the problem in the beginning started attacking American Pakistani and other troops who were there just to keep the peace Rather than participate in building the peace with others these people sought to ght and to disrupt even if it means returning Somalia to anarchy and mass famine And make no mistake about it if we were to leave Somalia tomorrow other nations would leave too Chaos would resume The relief effort would stop and starvation soon would return That knowledge has led us to continue our mission It is not ourjob to rebuild Somalia39s society or even to create a political process that can allow Somalia39s clans to live and work in peace The Somalis must do that for themselves The United Nations and many African states are more than willing to help But we we in the United States must decide whether we will give them enough time to have a reasonable chance to succeed We started this mission for the right reasons and we39re going to nish it in the right way In a sense we came to Somalia to rescue innocent people in a burning house We39ve nearly put the re out but some smoldering embers remain If we leave them now those embers will reignite into ames and people will die again If we stay a short while longer and do the right things we39ve got a reasonable chance of cooling off the embers and getting other re ghters to take our place We also have to recognize that we cannot leave now and still have all our troops present and accounted for We expected them to be well treated and we expect them to be released So now we face a choice Do we leave when the job gets tough or when the job is well done Do we invite a return of mass suffering or do we leave in a way that gives the Somalis a decent chance to survive Recently General Colin Powell said this about our choices in Somalia quotBecause things get dif cult you don39t cut and run You work the problem and try to nd a correct solutionquot We must leave on our own terms US credibility and leadership must be maintained For htat reason we can quotcut and runquot US troops will be replace by other countries Worried that enemies will learn that if they kill our men we all leave Not the message we want to send This past week39s events make it clear that even as we prepare to withdraw from Somalia we need more strength there We need more armor more air power to ensure that our people are safe and that we can do our job Today l have ordered 1700 additional Army troops and 104 additional armored vehicles to Somalia to protect our troops and to complete our mission I39ve also ordered an aircraft carrier and two amphibious groups with 3600 combat Marines to be stationed offshore These forces will be under American command Their mission what I am asking these young Americans to do is the following First they are there to protect our troops and our bases We did not go to Somalia with a military purpose We never wanted to kill anyone But those who attack our soldiers must know they will pay a very heavy price Second they are there to keep open and secure the roads the port and the lines of communication that are essential for the United Nations and the relief workers to keep the ow of food and supplies and people moving freely throughout the country so that starvation and anarchy do not return Third they are there to keep the pressure on those who cut off relief supplies and attacked our people not to personalize the con ict but to prevent a return to anarchy Fourth through their pressure and their presence our troops will help to make it possible for the Somali people working with others to reach agreements among themselves so that they can solve their problems and survive when we leave That is our mission lam proposing this plan because it will let us nish leaving Somalia on our own terms and without destroying all that two administrations have accomplished there For if we were to leave today we know what would happen Within months Somali children again would be dying in the streets Our own credibility with friends and allies would be severely damaged Our leadership in world affairs would be undermined at the very time when people are looking to America to help promote peace and freedom in the postcoldwar world And all around the world aggressors thugs and terrorists will conclude that the best way to get us to change our policies is to kill our people It would be open season on Americans That is why I am committed to getting this job done in Somalia not only quickly but also effectively To do that I am taking steps to ensure troops from other nations are ready to take the place of our own soldiers We39ve already withdrawn some 20000 troops and more than that number have replaced them from over two dozen other nations Now we will intensify efforts to have other countries deploy more troops to Somalia to assure that security will remain when we39re gone And we39ll complete the replacement of US military logistics personnel with civilian contractors who can provide the same support to the United Nations While we39re taking military steps to protect our own people and to help the UN maintain a secure environment we must pursue new diplomatic efforts to help the Somalis nd a political solution to their problems That is the only kind of outcome that can endure For fundamentally the solution to Somalia39s problems is not a military one it is political Leaders of the neighboring African states such as Ethiopia and Eritrea have offered to take the lead in efforts to build a settlement among the Somali people that can preserve order and security I have directed my representatives to pursue such efforts vigorously And I39ve asked Ambassador Bob Oakley who served effectively in two administrations as our representative in Somalia to travel again to the region immediately to advance this process Obviously even then there is no guarantee that Somalia will rid itself of violence and suffering But at least we will have given Somalia a reasonable chance This week some 15000 Somalis took to the streets to express sympathy for our losses to thank us for our effort Most Somalis are not hostile to us but grateful And they want to use this opportunity to rebuild their country It is my judgment and that of my military advisers that we may need up to 6 months to complete these steps and to conduct an orderly withdrawal We39ll do what we can to complete the mission before then All American troops will be out of Somalia no later than March the 3lst except for a few hundred support personnel in noncombat roles If we take these steps if we take the time to do the job right I am convinced we will have lived up to the responsibilities of American leadership in the world And we will have proved that we are committed to addressing the new problems of a new era When out troops in Somalia came under re this last weekend we witnessed a dramatic example of the heroic ethic of our American military When the rst Black Hawk helicopter was downed this weekend the other American troops didn39t retreat although they could have Some 90 of them formed a perimeter around the helicopter and they held that ground under intensely heavy re They stayed with their comrades That39s the kind of soldiers they are That39s the kind of people we are So let us nish the work we set out to do Let us demonstrate to the world as generations of Americans have done before us that when Americans take on a challenge they do the job right Let me express my thanks and my gratitude and my profound sympathy to the families of the young Americans who were killed in Somalia My message to you is your country is grateful and so is the rest of the world and so are the vast majority of the Somali people Our mission from this day forward is to increase our strength do ourjob bring our soldiers out and bring them home Thank you and God bless America Transcript of President Clinton39s speech on Bosnia Dayton Accords November 27 1995 Web posted at 1125 pm EST Last week the warring factions in Bosnia reached a peace agreement as a result of our efforts in Dayton Ohio and the support of our European and Russian partners Tonight I want to speak with you about implementing the Bosnian peace agreement and why our values and interests as Americans require that we participate Let me say at the outset America39s role will not be about ghting a war It will be about helping the people of Bosnia to secure their own peace agreement Our mission will be limited focused and under the command of an American general In ful lling this mission we will have the chance to help stop the killing of innocent civilians especially children and at the same time to bring stability to central Europe a region of the world that is vital to our national interests It is the right thing to do From our birth America has always been more than just a place America has embodied an idea that has become the ideal for billions of people throughout the world Our founders said it best America is about life liberty and the pursuit of happiness In this century especially America has done more than simply stand for these ideals We have acted on them and sacri ced for them Our people fought two world wars so that freedom could triumph over tyranny After World War I we pulled back from the world leaving a vacuum that was lled by the forces of hatred After World War II we continued to lead the world We made the commitments that kept the peace that helped to spread democracy that created unparalleled prosperity and that brought victory in the Cold War Today because of our dedication America39s ideals liberty democracy and peace are more and more the aspirations of people everywhere in the world It is the power of our ideas even more than our size our wealth and our military might that makes America a uniquely trusted nation With the Cold War over some people now question the need for our continued active leadership in the world They believe that much like after World War I America can now step back from the responsibilities of leadership They argue that to be secure we need only to keep our own borders safe and that the time has come now to leave to others the hard work of leadership beyond our borders I strongly disagree As the Cold War gives way to the global village our leadership is needed more than ever because problems that start beyond our borders can quickly become problems within them We39re all vulnerable to the organized forces of intolerance and destruction terrorism ethnic religious and regional rivalries the spread of organized crime and weapons of mass destruction and drug traf cking Just as surely as fascism and communism these forces also threaten freedom and democracy peace and prosperity And they too demand American leadership But nowhere has the argument for our leadership been more clearly justi ed than in the struggle to stop or prevent war and civil violence From Iraq to Haiti from South Africa to Korea from the Middle East to Northern Ireland we have stood up for peace and freedom because it39s in our interest to do so and because it is the right thing to do Now that doesn39t mean that we can solve every problem My duty as president is to match the demands for American leadership to our strategic interests and to our ability to make a difference America cannot and must not be the world39s policeman We cannot stop all war for all time but we can stop some wars We cannot save all women and all children but we can save many of them We can39t do everything but we must do what we can There are times and places where our leadership can mean the difference between peace and war and where we can defend our fundamental values as a people and serve our most basic strategic interests My fellow Americans in this new era there are still times when America and America alone can and should make the difference for peace The terrible war in Bosnia is such a case Nowhere today is the need for American leadership starker or more immediate than in Bosnia For nearly four years a terrible war has torn Bosnia apart Horrors we prayed had been banished from Europe forever have been seared into our minds again Skeletal prisoners caged behind barbedwire fences women and girls raped as a tool of war defenseless men and boys shot down into mass graves evoking visions of World War II concentration camps and endless lines of refugees marching toward a future of despair When I took of ce some where urging immediate intervention in the con ict I decided that American ground troops should not ght a war in Bosnia because the United States could not force peace on Bosnia39s warring ethnic groups the Serbs Croats and Muslims lnstead America has worked with our European allies in searching for peace stopping the war from spreading and easing the suffering of the Bosnian people We imposed tough economic sanctions on Serbia We used our air power to conduct the longest humanitarian airlift in history and to enforce a no y zone that took the war out of the skies We helped to make peace between two of the three warring parties the Muslims and the Croats But as the months of war turned into years it became clear that Europe alone could not end the con ict This summer Bosnian Serb shelling once again turned Bosnia39s playgrounds and marketplaces into killing elds In response the United States led NATO39s heavy and continuous air strikes many of them own by skilled and brave American pilots Those air strikes together with the renewed determination of our European partners and the Bosnian and Croat gains on the battle eld convinced the Serbs nally to start thinking about making peace At the same time the United States initiated an intensive diplomatic effort that forged a Bosniawide cease re and got the parties to agree to the basic principles of peace Three dedicated American diplomats Bob Frasure Joe Kruzel and Nelson Drew lost their lives in that effort Tonight we remember their sacri ce and that of their families and we will never forget their exceptional service to our nation Finally just three weeks ago the Muslims Croats and Serbs came to Dayton Ohio in America39s heartland to negotiate a settlement There exhausted by war they made a commitment to peace They agreed to put down their guns to preserve Bosnia as a single state to investigate and prosecute war criminals to protect the human rights of all citizens to try to build a peaceful democratic future And they asked for America39s help as they implement this peace agreement America has a responsibility to answer that request to help to turn this moment of hope into an enduring reality To do that troops from our country and around the world would go into Bosnia to give them the con dence and support they need to implement their peace plan I refuse to send American troops to ght a war in Bosnia but I believe we must help to secure the Bosnian peace I want you to know tonight what is at stake exactly what our troops will be asked to accomplish and why we must carry out our responsibility to help implement the peace agreement Implementing the agreement in Bosnia can end the terrible suffering of the people the warfare the mass executions the ethnic cleansing the campaigns of rape and terror Let us never forget a quarter of a million men women and children have been shelled shot and tortured to death Two million people half of the population were forced from their homes and into a miserable life as refugees and these faceless numbers have millions of real personal tragedies for each of the war39s victims was a mother or daughter father or son a brother or sister Now the war is over American leadership created the chance to build a peace and stop the suffering Securing peace in Bosnia will also help to build a free and stable Europe Bosnia lies at the very heart of Europe next door to many of its fragile new democracies and some of our closest allies Generations of Americans have understood that Europe39s freedom and Europe39s stability is vital to our own national security That39s why we fought two wars in Europe that39s why we launched the Marshall Plan to restore Europe that39s why we created NATO and waged the Cold War and that39s why we must help the nations of Europe to end their worst nightmare since World War II now The only force capable of getting this job done is NATO the powerful military alliance of democracies that has guaranteed our security for half a century now And as NATO39s leader and the primary broker of the peace agreement the United States must be an essential part of the mission If we39re not there NATO will not be there The peace will collapse the war will reignite the slaughter of innocents will begin again A con ict that already has claimed so many victims could spread like poison throughout the region eat away at Europe39s stability and erode our partnership with our European allies And America39s commitment to leadership will be questioned if we refuse to participate in implementing a peace agreement we brokered right here in the United States especially since the presidents of Bosnia Croatia and Serbia all asked us to participate and all pledged their best efforts to the security of our troops When America39s partnerships are weak and our leadership is in doubt it undermines our ability to secure our interests and to convince others to work with us If we do maintain our partnerships and our leadership we need not act alone As we saw in the Gulf War and in Haiti many other nations who share our goals will also share our burdens But when America does not lead the consequences can be very grave not only for others but eventually for us as well As I speak to you NATO is completing its planning for IFOR an international force for peace in Bosnia of about 60000 troops Already more than 25 other nations including our major NATO allies have pledged to take part They will contribute about twothirds of the total implementation force some 40000 troops The United States would contribute the rest about 20000 soldiers Later this week the nal NATO plan will be submitted to me for review and approval Let me make clear what I expected to include and what it must include for me to give nal approval to the participation of our armed forces First the mission will be precisely de ned with clear realistic goals that can be achieved in a de nite period of time Our troops will make sure that each side withdraws its forces behind the front lines and keeps them there They will maintain the cease re to prevent the war from accidentally starting again These efforts in turn will help to create a secure environment so that the people of Bosnia can return to their homes vote in free elections and begin to rebuild their lives Ourjoint chiefs of staff have concluded that this mission should and will take about one year Second the risks to our troops will be minimized American troops will take their orders from the American general who commands NATO They will be heavily armed and thoroughly trained By making an overwhelming show of force they will lessen the need to use force But unlike the UN forces they will have the authority to respond immediately and the training and the equipment to respond with overwhelming force to any threat to their own safety or any violation of the military provisions of the peace agreement If the NATO plan meets with my approval I will immediately send it to Congress and request its support I will also authorize the participation of a small number of American troops in a NATO advance mission that will lay the groundwork for IFOR starting sometime next week They will establish headquarters and set up the sophisticated communication systems that must be in place before NATO can send in its troops tanks and trucks to Bosnia The implementation force itself would begin deploying in Bosnia in the days following the formal signature of the peace agreement in midDecember The international community will help to implement arms control provisions of the agreement so that future hostilities are less likely and armaments are limited while the world community the United States and others will also make sure that the Bosnian Federation has the means to defend itself once IFOR withdraws IFOR will not be a part of this effort It will help them to rebuild to rebuild their roads and schools their power plants and hospitals their factories and shops It will reunite children with their parents and families with their homes It will allow the Bosnians freely to choose their own leaders it will give all the people of Bosnia But my fellow Americans no deployment of American troops is risk free and this one may well involve casualties There may be accidents in the eld or incidents with people who have not given up their hatred I will take every measure possible to minimize these risks but we must be prepared for that possibility US cannot step back from responsibly of world leadership In globalization the world is affected by any issue The problem will spread As president my most dif cult duty is to put the men and women who volunteer to serve our nation in harm39s way when our interests and values demand it I assume full responsibility for any harm that may come to them but anyone contemplating any action that would endanger our troops should know this America protects its own Anyone anyone who takes on our troops will suffer the consequences We will ght re with re and then some After so much bloodshed and loss after so many outrageous acts of inhuman brutality it will take an extraordinary effort of will for the people of Bosnia to pull themselves from their past and start building a future of peace But with our leadership and the commitment of our allies the people of Bosnia can have the chance to decide their future in peace They have a chance to remind the world that just a few short years ago the mosques and churches of Sarajevo were a shining symbol of multiethnic tolerance that Bosnia once found unity in its diversity Indeed the cemetery in the center of the city was just a few short years ago the magni cent stadium which hosted the Olympics our universal symbol of peace and harmony Bosnia can be that kind of place again We must not turn our backs on Bosnia now And so I ask all Americans and ask every member of Congress Democrat and Republican alike to make the choice for peace In the choice between peace and war America must choose peace My fellow Americans I ask you to think just for a moment about this century that is drawing to close and the new one that will soon begin Because previous generations of Americans stood up for freedom and because we continue to do so the American people are more secure and more prosperous And all around the world more people than ever before live in freedom more people than ever before are treated with dignity more people than ever before can hope to build a better life That is what America39s leadership is all about We know that these are the blessings of freedom and America has always been freedom39s greatest champion If we continue to do everything we can to share these blessings with people around the world if we continue to be leaders for peace then the next century can be the greatest time our nation has ever known A few weeks ago I was privileged to spend some time with His Holiness Pope john Paul II when he came to America At the very end of our meeting the Pope looked at me and said quotI have lived through most of this century I remember that it began with a war in Sarajevo Mr President you must not let it end with a war in Sarajevoquot ln Bosnia this terrible war has challenged our interests and troubled our souls Thankfully we can do something about it I say again our mission will be clear limited and achievable The people of Bosnia our NATO allies and people all around the world are now looking to America for leadership so let us lead That is our responsibility as Americans Good night and God bless America GW Bush and Obama Growing resentment against US government within and without US Pre 911 policy Empire on national interests Problems with Korea Problems with Palestine Worried allied y not joining Kyoto protocol Rebuilding NMB program Cutting of international funding for abortions Alienated South Korea by not supporting sunshine policy South Korea policy to reunite families within North Korea Included North Korea in Axis of Evil Good for North Korea Criticized Arafat and vetoed UN proposal to protect Castilian 911 hewed new kinds of threats so need new response Preemption used as justi cation for invasion Toppling of Hussein39s governs But after words could not justify the threat In power vacuum more terrorism come into Ira Put new emphasis one elations But more complicated than he thought Monopoly of use of force Stable economy and support of the people Ignored historical trend that emerging countries can39t achieve stable democracies without a strong middle class Slow transitory phase From autocratic to democratic US enforcement of quick democratic shifts have failed Assumed that if given the choice pope would always choose peaceful liberal democratic leader Showing coexistence of democracy and terrorism in Iraq Palestine and Lebanon Too much emphasis on uniIateraIism Alienating allies Needed more emphasis on collective security Others sanctioned us capability to lead a spread democracy Too much emphasis on security through the rot riot act Bush s war effort proved too costly Started with the largest budgets surplus Ended with largest budget de cit More dependent on foreign investors Bush s 3 identi ed axis of Evil Iran Iraq and North Korea Couldn39t get to Iran and North Korea Obama To decrease forces in Iraq and refocus on Afghanistan Hamid Karzai leader was not a strong leader Local of cials were corrupt couldn39t unify people Option 1 cut and run Immediate withdrawal Option 2 counterterrorism Focus on CT much less economic and state building Option 3 diplomacy Negotiate with Taliban to cut ties with AlQaeda Option 4 counterinsurgency Control populations instead of territory Plans to withdraw troops by 2014 Pushed back to 2017 Failure would diminish US credibility but success could require greater commitment Balance world historical mission with strategic interests BushGore Debates MODERATOR New question How would you go about as president deciding when it was in the national interest to use US force generally BUSH Well if it39s in our vital national interest and that means whether our territory is threatened or people could be harmed whether or not the alliances are our defense alliances are threatened whether or not our friends in the Middle East are threatened Secondly whether or hot the mission was clear Whether or not it was a clear understanding as to what the mission would be Thirdly whether or not we were prepared and trained to win Whether or not our forces were of high morale and high standing and wellequipped And nally whether or not there was an exit strategy The vice president and l have a disagreement about the use of troops He believes in nation building I would be very careful about using our troops as hation builolers And therefore I want to rebuild the military power It starts with a billion dollar pay raise for the men and women who wear the uniform A billion dollars more than the president recently signed into law It39s to make sure our troops are wellhoused and wellequipped Bonus plans to keep some of our highskilled folks in the services and a commander in chief that sets the mission to ght and win war and prevent war from happening in the rst place Intervene with force if WE interests people and allies are threatened Be prepared to win Have exit strategy Clear objectives Went back on everything except protecting national interests Bush vs Kerry Debate LEHRER New question Mr President two minutes Do you believe the election of Senator Kerry on November the 2nd would increase the chances of the US being hit by another 9lltype terrorist attack BUSH No I don39t believe it39s going to happen I believe I39m going to win because the American people know I know how to lead I39ve shown the American people I know how to lead I have I understand everybody in this country doesn39t agree with the decisions I39ve made And I made some tough decisions But people know where I stand People out there listening know what I believe And that39s how best it is to keep the peace This nation of ours has got a solemn duty to defeat this ideology of hate And that39s what they are This is a group of killers who will not only kill here but kill children in Russia that39ll attack unmercifully in Iraq hoping to shake our will We have a duty to defeat this enemy We have a duty to protect our children and grandchildren The best way to defeat them is to never waver to be strong and to use every asset at our disposal is to constantly stay on the offensive and at the same time spread liberty And that39s what people are seeing now is happening in Afghanistan Ten million citizens have registered to vote It39s a phenomenal statistic They39re given a chance to be free and they will show up at the polls Fortyone percent of those 10 million are women Must stay on the offensive and promote liberty New ideological war Transform Iraq to prove inferiority of racial smallest ideology


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