Environmental Studies 3: Introduction to the Social and Cultural Environment
Environmental Studies 3: Introduction to the Social and Cultural Environment
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This 8 page Reader was uploaded by Kyle Roe on Friday April 25, 2014. The Reader belongs to a course at University of California Santa Barbara taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 114 views.
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Date Created: 04/25/14
April 22 39 Eurasian Exploration and the Age of Discovery Todays music The Mask and the Mirror Lorean McKinnett Book of Genesis Gospel God gave the land to man for him to use Detailed how natural resources should be used Paul of Tarsus spread the message of Christ through the Middle East o His message was for the gentiles non Jewish o Taught them they didn t need to be circumcised or follow ritual dietary laws ofJudaism Paul39s interpretation became main form of Christianity Became state religion of Roman empire Utilitarian view of land from Genesis justified Roman environmental manipulation The Codex Christianity affected development of writing Word was written in Codex instead of a scroll o A lot like a modern book Use of codex spread with Christianity Eventually became official writing format of Roman Empire Early Middle Ages Dark Ages Period of quotdarkness between Romans and Renaissance Barbarians destroying libraries art Medius Aevum quotMiddle Ages in Latin Same as Medieval Period Focus on Europe 400900 region became overwhelmingly Christian Jesus of Nazareth 133 AD Son of god savior of humankind quotFollow the Christ and you will be rewarded with everlasting life Born in Bethlehem Judea Roman Empire Preaching made him a threat to Romans crucified him Gained mass appeal in poor uneducated masses of Romans o Roman paganism too complicated for most o Christianity had a more positive message than most religions o Everlasting life in heaven appealed to those who lived in poverty The Papacy Office of the pope Dates back to 64 AD Word s oldest organization Spread word around Roman Empire Catholicism Western Roman version Orthodoxy Developed in Eastern Roman Empire Center at Constantinople Byzantium Eastern part of the Roman Empire Built on previous cultures of the region Spread north into Slavic areas Wasn39t being sacked by barbarians High end of late Roman Empire Western area had greater potential due to mild climate less landlocked Lords Leaders of remote outposts Develop stronger relation with clergy as Roman influence declines Control the masses Serfs Peasants Belong to the land Feudalism Lords control serfs System of classes Work for the King castle land etc Serfs did most grunt work Roman Empire dominated by Christian faith spreading it to barbarians in Europe High Middle Ages Called quothigh because things supposedly got better for common people Institutions matured More people feed Longer lives more possessions Western advantages start taking hold Manorial system Modified feudalism Serfs still tied to the land but given wages Manors had own laws often gave common people more rights Could have their own land crops Rise of Islam 3quotquot great monotheistic religion Arabic definition submission and peace with god Based on teachings of Prophet Muhammad Followers said he was last of God39s prophets Allah is all powerful no creature can be compared to him Requires absolute submission in daily worship Transfer of art literature architecture from Arabia throughout Europe Allah is in heaven not of the Earth Small is beautiful Small selfcontained units did everything o Ex manors St Francis of Assisi Close relationship to nature Preached to dogs and birds Thought they could be converted to Christianity Film Clip Monty Python and the Holy Grail April 24 Music Music of the California Indians transferred into the music of colonial Spain Beringia Pleistocene Age 1 mil years ago c 25 30000 years ago Extremely cold Guarded against northern migration Last Ice Age Some ice sheets were a mile thick Humans crossed from Bering Strait to Americas Beringia land bridge Wisconsin Glaciation Surrounded Alaska and Canada in ice Mega fauna Mammoths mastodons etc Hunters followed these animals across the Bering Strait o Moved southward as Wisconsin Glaciation melted What happened to the mega fauna Overkill hypothesis Advancing humans killed off mega fauna Easy prey Didn39t fear people like they should have People killed them faster than they could reproduce led to extinction Cons not enough people to kill all those animals Natural dieoffs and extinction Mega fauna died without human interference Comet caused massive forest fires in North America Changed the climate Animals coudn t adapt PaleoIndians First settlers of North America 1 area they settled was Mexico Started to move upwards from there Clovis New Mexico Famous settlement Clovis points o Special arrowheads unique to the area o Very advanced o Neolithic Anasazi Near Colorado River and Arizona Pueblo country Archaic Period 70001000 BCE Clovis and Anasazi signal the beginning People quit migrating settled Multiple Migrations One theory people island hopped across Pacific from Asia and landed in South America Chumash Lived between hunter gatherer and settled lifestyle Known as Complex Coastal Hunter Gatherers Lived in California o Lots to be harvested o Building materials too Were mostly fisherman hunted sea animals Lived from Malibu to San Luis Obispo inland in mountain ranges Was organized at chiefdom level Extensive trade networks Highest population density of all CA Indians Carpinteria one of the most populated areas Harvested acorns o Crack them take the meat out o Mash it in a pestel o Add water dry it out o Inedible acids leave acorn now edible Freshwater shortages o Regulated population Channel Island Settlements Would come back to mainland if water ran low Tomol Type of canoe Made out of collected driftwood tar other materials Waterproof baskets Carried water and food Trading Had shell bead currency Manipulated environment Would set mountains on fire to propagate plant growth Narrow range of animals to make hunting easier Mesoamerica Nuclear America Central and Southern Mexico Influenced all American cultures quotHeart of the Americas Nucleus of American settlement Olmecs One of the oldest civilizations Formative civilization for Aztecs and Mayans Lived in Central Mexico Advanced Culture based on trading Great cities and monuments First cultivated corn Advanced calendar Shared religion 0 Believed something had to be done to please the sun gods Human sacrifice To please the sun gods Spread to Aztec and Mayan religions Led to bad relations with neighbors quotGreeks of the New World Had really advanced calendar astronomy Form of hieroglyphs Reservoirs aqueducts Lived in city states Controlled water for irrigation o Controlled too much o May have led to demise Teotihuacan Biggest Mayan city state Biggest in Americas for 200 years Deforestation Around Yucatan Peninsula Made worse drought caused by overuse of water Clearing land for agriculture probably didn t help Metal Fabrication Mostly used for ornamental stuff A little used for weapons Were in Bronze Age Aztecs Supplanted Mayas used to trade with them Took a lot from Olmecs Conquered Central Mexico Lots of cities Intense environmental manipulation Tenochtitlan Capital of Aztec Empire Had to drain swamp to build city Built dike to hold water back Believed in pleasing sun gods with human sacrifice Inca Empire Other advanced American civilization Andean Cultures Precursors of Incas Lived in Andes Mountains May have come across Pacific Cultivated cotton and corn Had irrigation Disappeared long before Incas Ecological Barriers Mountains and Amazon rainforest Naturally isolated Manco Capac Brought people out of mountains into Cuzco Valley Incas began 1100 AD Conquered neighboring tribes through 1400s Empire was mostly in Peru Huayna Capac Quipus Most famous Incan emperor Moved capital to Cuzco Empire reached peak Class based on how related you were to the emperor Universal polytheistic religion Did human sacrifice not as much as Mexican civilizations State level No writing Lots of water control Knotted strings used for accounting Keeping track of crops Relay stations runners roads Built for communication through empire Messengers would run length of empire to bring messages Relay stations were resting points Terraced agriculture Different levels of crops Pacific air would keep crops from freezing at high altitudes Used wells for irrigation Tomatoes potatoes squash and beans Native Inca plants Animal domestication 2 main animas llama and alpaca o Used for wool carrying items Were in the Bronze Age didn39t really fabricate metals Inca Population 812 million people
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