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Notes from 2/19 - 2/16 Bio

by: Danielle Nickinello

Notes from 2/19 - 2/16 Bio Biocore012

Danielle Nickinello

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About this Document

These are the 3rd set of biology notes includes material: - prokaryotes - eukaryotes - speciation
Exploring Biology
Dr. Alison Brody & Dr. Mellissa Pespeni
Class Notes
Bio, Biology
25 ?




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Danielle Nickinello on Saturday February 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biocore012 at University of Vermont taught by Dr. Alison Brody & Dr. Mellissa Pespeni in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Exploring Biology in Biomedical Engineering at University of Vermont.


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Date Created: 02/27/16
Notes for dates: 2/19/16 – 2/26/16 - Biological Species Concept: group of individuals that have the potential to interbreed and produce viable and fertile offspring and are reproductively isolated from all other groups - Phylogenetic Species Concept: smallest group of organisms that share a common ancestor - Allopatric Speciation: special or temporal separation leading to genetic divergence and reproductive isolation - Sympatric Speciation: occurs without special or temporal isolation o Polyploidy in plants o Host-race formation in insects - Adaptive Radiation: evolutionary diversification of single lineage, often associated with an ancestral population on a “mainland” or a subpopulation on an “island” - Host-Race Formation: herbivorous insects and host plant, find mates on host - Host Conditioning: adults prefer host experienced as larvae - Heterochrony: evolutionary change in the rate or timing of events - Reproductive Isolation: o Pre-zygotic isolation:  Habitat isolation  Temporal isolation  Behavioral isolation  Mechanical (morphological) isolation  Gametic isolation o Post-zygotic isolation:  Hybrid invaibility: offspring don’t make it to reproduction  Hybrid infertility: offspring make it to reproduction but can’t reproduce - Micro evolution: changes in gene frequency in populations over time o Example: natural selection, sexual selection, genetic drift, gene flow, mutation, bottle neck, founder effect - Macro Evolution: evolution of species and higher level taxa - What are the basic requirements for life? o Separation from environment by some membrane o Energy source: means to metabolize o Genetic code: DNA and means to replicate it o Needs to reproduce - Exchange of genetic info between prokaryotes: o Transformation: bacterium takes up DNA from surroundings o Transduction: phage (virus) transfers genes to bacteria o Conjunction: DNA transfers between 2 prokaryotes - Sequence of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes is useful for phylogenetic studies because: o rRNA was resent in common ancestors of all life (all free living organisms have it) o lateral transfer unlikely o rRNA evolves slowly - Differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes: EUKARYOTIC CELL PROKARYOTIC CELL NUCLEUS Present Absent # OF More than one One, but plasmids CHROMOSOM ES CELL TYPE Multicellular (usually) Unicellular (usually) MEMBRANE Present Absent BOUND NUCLEUS CELL Mitosis Fission DIVISION NUCLEAR Present Absent ENVELOPE ORGANELLES Membrane bound No membrane bound organelles organelles - Keys to evolutionary success of prokaryotes: o Ability to exchange DNA o Rapid reproduction = short generation times - Evidence for single origins: o Commonalities among all cells  Cell membrane and ribosomes  Common metabolic pathways  Semi-conservative DNA replication  DNA encodes proteins - Basic cellular characteristics of bacteria: o Rigid cell wall made of peptidoglycan (not in archaea) o Cell membrane composed of a phospholipid bilayer o No meiosis  mostly asexual reproduction o Many form spores o All bacteria are either:  Spirilla- spiral shaped  Bacilli- rod shaped  Cocci- spherical - Prokaryotes are most successful in terms of number and diversity


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