Psych 128 Notes week 4
Psych 128 Notes week 4
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Date Created: 04/25/14
week 4 lecture 42214 decision making people make decisions everyday making choices or taking action a rational person takes into account the likelihood of events before making a decisions system 1 weighing options one can make decisions by listing pros and cons of each choice and weigh op ons sometimes the value of some choices are more valuable than others un values can be derived mathematically using a method developed by economists called subjective expected utility multiple the likelihood of an event by its subjectivity utility its value to you require system 2 processing subjective expected utility is a good method to follow unfortunately in everyday life we rarely know the probabilities of events Heuristics in everyday life ppl are often good at determining the likelihood of outcomes that they frequently encounter these shortcuts heuristics 0 often lead to correct solutions but occasionally fail heuristics and algorithms allow you to lessen your work load make judgments quickly but heuristics don39t always guarantee correct solution 3 heuristics are widely although not always correctly used represen ta tiveness availability anchoring and adjustment representativeness problem solvers will judge the likelihood of an event not by standard methods for calculating probabilities but rather by how similar that event is to another event ex do they grow coffee in Paraguay Know its by Brazil so you assume P is similar to B and say yes representativeness people base judgments on how their representative profile was of an engineer rather than taking into consideration the proportion of engineers in the sample o this proportion is called the base rate and should have in uenced their judgments availability suppose you are asked which of two situations are more likely o more English words beginning with K or having K as the third letter Words starting with K come to mind more easily than K as the 3rd letter Availability is the use of ease of retrieval as the basis for judging frequency Ease of knowing Fluency of response Feeling of righ tness o Be suspicious Odd events come to mind more readily because they stand out Overestimate how likely they are Anchoring and adjustment One group was asked if the MI river was shorter than 500 mi Another group was asked if it was shorter than 5000 mi Then they were asked to guess the actual length of the river 500 mi group est that it was 1000 mi long and the 5000 mile group est it was 2000 miles long it is actually 2348 mi long their estimating based on the question you ask them ppl use the initial starting point anchor and make adjustments value of heuristics re ect system 1 thinking fast little working memory anterior cingulate cortex when there is cognitive incongruity things don39t seem right activation in anterior cingulate emotion and somatic marker hypothesis system 1 and heuristic decision making the entire body39s emotion related circuitry is the basic system in which decision making occurs manifested in prefrontal cortex ppl choose what is immediate and now seeing patterns in randomness humans have appreciation for the ratio of possible outcomes over the long run law of large numbers ppl seem to be thrown off by small numbers o clusters of events that deviate form expectations this is because we believe that small numbers of events should repeat the pattern that we expect from large numbers of events lecture 424 system 1 amp 2 connection by similarity reasoning by pattern matching reasoning by schemas clip from monty python crowd not thinking anything through 0 system 1 thinking some cultures treatment for disease looks like the symptoms of the disease in general the treatment doesn39t look like the disease but we like to reason by similarity watch out for ppl who use similarity to make decisions the Wason selection task peter Wason developed a situation called the selection task in the task reasoners were asked to listen to a rule that described an arbitrary relationship among numbers and letters and then were asked to see if the rule was T or F when a sentence has and IF in it people often make mistakes on conditionality if there is a negative word they are likely to make a mistake if you do NOT selection task you see four squares imagine these are cards with a front and back on each of the cards is either most ppl want to ip over the A card and the 2 card 0 why if you ip the A you expect and even number on the other side if there is an ODD number on the other side then it contradicts the vowel and even number rule so the rule is false o bicondition 80 of students pick vowel even use verbal statements as entry points into the reasoning task 0 not thinking very deeply O task 2 rule 2 If you are drinking alcohol you must be 21 years of age people want to ip over the alcohol and the 18year old equivalent to the vowel task ppl are logical on this task but not on the vowel and number task o because the alcohol one relates to our everyday life schemas for everyday life a deontic rule 0 a rule that involves permission and obligation OOO why we are successful at everyday reasoning we constantly use inferences rules defined in terms of goals and actions to be taken 0 reasoning schemas a small set of these that applies to the Deontic situations is called pragmatic reasoning schemas and their general format has the following four features some rules schemas are under social permission rules only in society 0 always social rules to obey 0 generally have characteristic of if you want a benefit then you must pay the price people agree to help each other follow rules even though they don39t want to pay the price they do ppl believe these social exchange rules are important for human evolution if we didn39t have social rules we would have killed each other long ago social exchange allows ppl to get along in community 0 ppl expect social exchange selection task before that given a memory task after the selection they were memory task 9 selection vowel social rule 9 performance deteriorated on vowel task working memory load for some people doing the vowel task they were not using pattern matching as really trying to work the task out memory load doesn39t normally affect system 1 but not everyone was using system 1 other group did the memory load task and got the deontic rule and there was no effect what does this mean 0 Performance on deontic tasks may require system 1 o Deontic tasks sound like social rules but once you look at the social rule you know how to do it 0 There isn39t any question or con ict to follow these rules and you already know how to perform them Where reasoning schemas come form Speed limit rules are violated But it doesn39t mean the rule isn39t true Another rule ppl have to drive on the left side of the road Ppl s rational decision making depend on the context Bias effect In the case of the syllogism ppl s knowledge often plays a role in evaluating the logical validity of a conclusion If you believe a conclusion is true then you are more likely to think it39s a correct conclusion the result of a logically valid process On the other hand if you disbelieve a conclusion then you39re more likely to believe it is not valid Dual task methodology In one study students performed two tasks a reasoning task in which belief should cause errors and a second task that uses up spatial working memory The reasoning problems were like the following 0 Major premise all fruits can be eaten o Minor premise bananas can be eaten 0 Conclusions bananas are fruit I The concl Follows logically from the premises I The concl Does not follow logically from the premises Notice that while the concl Is true it does not follow he premise Second task memory load task required the participant to look at a matric with 3 or 4 dots before doing the reasoning task and then to reproduce the matrix after doing the reasoning task 13 of the students had to memorize a low load 3 dot pattern 1 3 of students had to memorize a more complex high load 4 dot pattern 1 3 of the students had no memory load task I Must involve system 2 not just system 1 I Ppl with high working memory working capacity find these tasks easy Implied transitivity o Read the following set of facts and then answer the questions as rapidly as you can at the end 0 You39ll notice that a relationship marked by a long dash is undefined in the task and relies on you to provide an interpretation 0 Shows system 2 processing but info that goes to system 2 has to go through system 1 I Most students interpreted the dash line as symmetrical I There are primitive relationships that come instinctively I Using symmetry when it doesn39t say to I Ppl use transitivity if not symmetry Transitivity not born with a notion of it But very early 46 years transitivity comes into implicit logical vocabulary Trying to decide how relationships exist The core ability in original IQ test was a test of if children possessed transitivity if this box is bigger than this one Does this this Implied transitivity The demonstration shows that there is a tendency to interpret relations in the simplest way Using the converted interpretation teats the A are B relationship as symmetrical A B and thereby reduces the need to keep track of expectations Linear reasoning System 2 Basic task it looks like just a system 1 task how many birth dates do you hate Can be interpenetrated differently Need to use system 2 to interpret High IQ ppl go to system 2 to double check their answers Ppl who answer the question quickly only uses system 1 System 2 holds up memory and you think about it more o Uses up time to get an answer High IQ ppl are not just those who use system 2 IQ is correlated with whether system 2 produces and answer if the person allows system 2 to produce an answer IQ is related to willingness to finish exercise endurance working memory capacity that allows system 2 to function Mechanistic View of intelligence that tries to explain people39s intuitions Uses WM capacity Slow sequential low capacity correlated with individual differences in cognitive capacity Rule based In general system two is domain general Performed in central memory working capacity