SOC 204 Week 6 Lecture Notes
SOC 204 Week 6 Lecture Notes SOC 204
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Scott Morrison on Thursday May 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 204 at University of Oregon taught by Dr. C.J. Pascoe in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 168 views. For similar materials see Intro Sociology in Social Science at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 05/07/15
SOC 204 Lecture Notes Week 6 More on Methods Content Analysis looking at films music media to find cultural stories Content tells us the dominant narratives of our culture pop culture HistoricalComparative Methods Comparing histories of different countries and how these events influenced social life eg cigarettes used to be socially built into very environment think ashtrays everywhere because everyone smoked but then laws changed this everyday social aspect Research Ethics The Principles of Ethical Research First do no harm Do not cause subjects unnecessary harm or trauma lnformed Consent Subjects need to know that they are taking part in an experiment if the experiment is of a nature where the subject expects privacy ethnography for instance does not require informed consent because there is no expectation of privacy Voluntary Participation You can t forcibly make someone a part of your experiment they must volunteer Stratification The way in which inequality is patterned in a society the process by which inequality forms Systemic inequalities that arise between groups of people that can be intended or unintended Social stratification is maintained through culture shared beliefs and norms in a society Groups at the top have access to more resources than groups at the bottom this is what makes them unequal s inequality inevitable Unnecessary Is it possible to set up a system in which inequality does not exist Rousseau Rousseau strived for social equality a social system in which any differences in social status prestige wealth etc are based on natural factors alone meritocracy He believed that social equality was one of the defining factors for a good society He believed that some types of equality are inevitable but most are not He also believed that private property was the main cause of inequality Private property brings competition isolation and aggression Hegel Like Rousseau Hegel also disliked inequality Hegel came up with the MasterSlave Dialectic a relationship between a master and a slave in which the slave supports the master with labor and the master supports the slave with resources One cannot live without the other Hegel argued that as society becomes more democratic the dialectic becomes less extreme The MasterSlave Dialectic arose from Conflict Theory Marxism s Inequality Good for Society Malthus Ferguson and Miller thought so Ferguson Miller Believed that private property is good The reason anyone has private property is because they worked hard for it Private property encourages people to work hard to not be lazy and to not live at the expense of others Private property promotes competition competition discourages laziness Malthus Malthus was more extreme than Ferguson and Miller Malthus believed that inequality was necessary for keeping the population under control When populations exceed their resources there is war and famine war and famine kill off the excess and the population drops once more to a sustainable level Malthus believed that sharing resources out equally wouldn t save the population anyway so he felt it was better to share resources amongst a sustainable group and let the others fend for themselves and probably die off Brutal How Do We Define Inequality Think of society as a board game Equality of Opportunity Everyone plays by the same rules of the game none of the rules are holding any one particular group back Everyone has a chance at achieving wealth prestige etc With this equality there are laws that prevent discrimination so therefore the only thing holding anyone back is ability and desire Americans like to think that they have this type of equality quotpull yourself up by your bootstraps kind of deal and it is true that we have laws against many types of discrimination but discrimination is still highly prevalent Equality of Condition Everyone starts at the same spot on the board Affirmative action is based on this type of equality AA assumes that not everyone has an equal starting spot so it adjusts for this SATs can help us examine why America does not have equality of condition the SATs are geared towards only those who have the cultural capital of a white person Cultural capital Pierre Bourdieu is the information and nuances one can understand only from living in and being part of a culture On the SATs black students don t do as well because they do not have the same cultural capital as white people the tests are culturally geared towards white people Equality of Outcome Everyone ends the game with the same result This is the most dramatic and the most Marxist of the three types of equality It is the belief that we all deserve the same level of comfort because we are all human Equality of outcome is hard for Americans to jump on board with because Americans are opposed to the idea of quotfree riders The Free Rider Problem is the idea that if everyone is getting the same amount of stuff there is less incentive to work hard to get stuff so some people slack off these would be the free riders while some people work but everyone still gets paid the same amount Americans don t tend to like that How are Resources Distributed Most resources in America are distributed by class but there are other ways to go about it The Estate System The elite take responsibility for the masses The elite have the resources so the elite make sure that the masses get resources while living off the labor of the masses MasterSlave Dialectic The Caste System Resource distribution is preordained by a divine power The rich and poor are chosen by a divine power The Class System Resources are distributed by economic class Keep in mind that no society is purely one of these systems they are often muddled together America for instance is a mix of the class and estate systems How do we define class ncome how much do you make Consumption patterns what do you buy Where do you live Where do your kids go to school What do you do in your free time How do we understand class Conflict Theory Bourgeoisie capitalist class Goal maximize profit minimize costs Proletariat working class Goal maximize wages maximize working conditions The two goals of these two groups conflict with each other The bourgeoisie is in charge though so they usually win out Hegemony The way in which the interests of the powerful become the interests of everyone This is how the bourgeoisie controls the proletariat Weber IncomeEconomic status don t explain class social status explains class but what is social status Social status is the groups and the prestige of those groups that people participate in This determines class This is why for some reason we place a college student above a minimum wage fastfood restaurant worker Keep in mind Weber was a symbolic interactionist he worked with meanings One significant type of meaning when discussing class is taste the rich are said to have quotgood taste Things that are popular with the rich eg designer shoesbags are desirable to the poor the poor try to emulate those things to look rich the poor develop a taste and then the rich have to move on to something new and different that the poor don t have in order to continue separating themselves from the poor EliteMass Dichotomv System a small group of elites rule the masses The elite are richer than the masses The elite rotate through different ruling systems corporations CEOs poitics many CEOS move onto congress miitary LOTS of exmilitary in congress
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