Sensation and Perception book notes
Sensation and Perception book notes psych 303
Cal State Fullerton
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Michelle Ibrahim on Saturday February 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to psych 303 at California State University - Fullerton taught by James Neuse in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Sensation and Perception in Psychlogy at California State University - Fullerton.
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Date Created: 02/27/16
Ch. 3 Neural Processing and Processing 02/10/2016 ▯ How Convergence affects rods and cones sensitivity Rods: high convergence= high sensitivity and detail vision Cones: low convergence= high visual acuity Lateral Inhibition and perception Mach bands: seeing borders more sharply o Illusory light and dark bands near a light-dark border o Our perception of these illusory bands is represented graphically. The graph indicates the lightness we perceive as we move along the line from A to D. o We can explain Mach bands by lateral inhibition Each of the 6 receptors in this circuit sends signals to bipolar cells, and each bipolar cell sends lateral inhibition to its neighbors on both sides The receptors under the two squares of grey in the example in the book receive the same illumination The left side, which has the lighter background under the gray square. The light area causes receptors under the gray to respond rapidly and to send large amounts of inhibition to the neurons below the center square The right diagram with a dark border cause the receptors under that are to fire less rapidly so they send less inhibition than the cells under the right square, their response is decreased more. ▯ A display that cant be explained by lateral inhibition Whites illusion where the area on top of the black appears lighter but it is surrounded by white so it should look darker based off lateral inhibition but that does not apply to this figure Processing from the retina to the visual cortex and beyond Responding of single fibers in the optic nerve Optic never fiber monitors’ a small area of the retina, and all of them together take in information about what is happening over the entire retina Center surround receptive fields are ▯ Selective adaption The firing causes neurons to eventually become fatigued, or adapt This adaption causes 2 physiological effects o 1. The neurons firing rate decreases o 2. The neurons fires less when that stimulus is immediately presented again o Neurons that were not firing do not adapt ▯ Selective rearing Where if an animal is thrown into an environment their neurons will adapt the environment after a long period of time, unlike selective adaption where putting an animal in a diff environment for a short period of time hinders the neurons ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Key Terms: Neural processing- the interaction of the signals in many neurons Lateral inhibition- inhibition that is transmitted across the retina and wills show how inhibition can cause perceptual effects Lightness- the perception of shades ranging from white to gray to black Simultaneous contrast- occurs when our perception of the brightness or color of one are is affect by the presence of an adjacent or surrounding area Belongingness- states that an area’s appearance is influenced by the part of the surroundings to which the area appears to belong Receptive field- the are that caused the neuron to fire the nerves fiber’s, it is the region of the retina that must receive illumination in order to obtain a response in any given fiber Center surround organization- the are in the center of the receptive field responds differently to light than the are in the surround of the receptive field Excitatory area- presenting a spot of light to the center increasing firing Inhibitory area- stimulation of the surround causes a decrease in firing Center surround receptive fields- it showed that neural processing could result in neurons that respond best to specific patterns of illumination Center surround antagonism- a small spot of light presented to the excitatory center of the receptive field causes a small increase in the rate of never firing and increasing the light’s size so that it covers the entire center of the receptive field increases the cells response Cerebral cortex- the 2-4 mm thick covering of the brain that play a center role in determining perception and cognition Occipital lobe- visual receiving area, the place where signals from the retina and LGN first reach the cortex Superior colliculus- receives some signals from the eye, plays and important role in controlling movements of the eyes Striate cortex- called the visual receiving area because it has a striped appearance when viewed in cross section or area V! (Higher level visual processing anything higher than V1) LGN- purpose is to regulate neural information as it flows from the retina to the cortex, it receives more signals from the cortex than from the retina Simple cortical cells- fields of neurons in the retina and LGN that have excitatory and inhibitory areas that are arranged side by side in the receptive fields rather than in the center surround configuration, responds best to vertical bars Orientation tuning curve- determined by measuring the response of the simple cortical cell to bars with different orientations Complex cells- cortical neurons respond best to moving bar like stimuli with specific orientations. Respond best to bars of a particular orientation however they respond to moving stimuli across a receptive field End stopped cells- fire to moving lines of specific length or to moving corners or angles/vertices Feature detectors- because simple, complex, and end-stopped cells fire in response to specific features of the stimulus such as orientation or direction of movement they are sometimes called this. Selective adaption- the firing causes neurons to eventually become fatigued, or adapt Neural plasticity/experience-dependent plasticity- the idea that the response properties of neuron can be shaped by perceptual experience Specificity coding- proposes that a particular object is represented by the firing of a neuron that responds only to that object and to no other objects Grandmother cell- neuron that responds only to specific stimulus Distributing coding- is the representation of a particular object by the pattern of firing of a large number of neurons Sparse coding- occurs when a particular object is represented by a pattern of firing of only a small group of neurons with the majority of the neurons remaining silent ▯ ▯
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