SOC 204 Week 8 Lecture Notes
SOC 204 Week 8 Lecture Notes SOC 204
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Scott Morrison on Friday May 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 204 at University of Oregon taught by Dr. C.J. Pascoe in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 167 views. For similar materials see Intro Sociology in Social Science at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 05/22/15
SOC 204 Lecture Notes Week 8 Gender lcont Hidden Curriculum The values attitudes and behaviors that we expect of certain genders that are subtly implied and often unintentionally quottaughtquot in the classroom Many teachers use gender as an easy way of dividing the class into groups for activities Classes that experience this have been found to have more rigid expectations of gender roles Hidden curriculum also shows up in sports often times sports fans will use rape metaphors when referring to competition or discipline Sports fans will also use slurs pertaining to homosexuality to insult the opposing team Sociological Analyses of Gender Inequality Functionalist As long as everyone enacts their assigned roles society will function properly Gender inequality is one of the way these roles are assigned to people functionalists believe that gender inequality is a contributing factor to a wellfunctioning society and that some suffering is necessary for society to function Conflict Theorist Men currently hold power over women Women can only access the material resources of the powerful male group by marrying into this group Conflict theorists believe that heterosexual marriage is an institution that women must engage in to survive Critical Theoristlnterpretive Theorist There is conflict between men and women but what meaning do we obtain from this conflict Men and women are not simply two different classes there are further subdivisions of men and women based on socioeconomic status race etc that stratify men and women into a much more complex hierarchy than simply quotmen above women Sexual Identity We didn t have classifications for sexual identity until the late 1800s when KrafftEbing popularized the terms heterosexual and homosexual amongst others like sadist and masochist KrafftEbing created these words out of a need to categorize erotic life which arose from wage labor with wage labor many people did not need to be in families for economic purposes and were free to explore their sexualities Variations of Sexuality Cultural Sexuality is not always attached to gender the way it is in the US in some cultures homosexuality actually makes men considered to be more masculine In others homosexual behavior is accepted at young ages but not old when heterosexual marriage children is expected so here it is an issue of age not gender There is nothing inherently natural about the way gender and sexuality are arranged in societies because they vary so widely between societies they are socially constructed WhoWhat Rules Whowhat rules are the rules of a socity that denote who can have sex with whom and what activities are appropriate in which contexts People who obey all of these rules are referred to as the quotcharmed circle These people are given societal rewards in the form of privilege The less similar you are to the charmed circle the fewer societal privileges or rights you have Gay people are slightly outside the charmed circle they are becoming increasingly less discriminated against but it still happens in some parts of the United States Sex criminals are about the furthest you could get outside of the charmed circle sex criminals are an example of how deeply our society stratifies people based on sexuality For example sex criminals are the only type of criminal required to register on a publically available list of offenders These people are required to have signs outside their houses to advertise their offences and are required to personally knock on the doors of the entire neighborhood to inform all residents Murderers aren t required to do this though their crimes are just as abhorrent We punish sex crimes in a way that we punish no other type of crime this is how we police sexuality in the US Race Is race biologically significant All humans are 99 genetically identical and yet race seems to be a powerful classification system in our country There is more biodiversity in one racial group than there is between two racial groups biologically we are strikingly similar yet we still use race to classify Racial distinctions are set by society not by nature there are no set biological guidelines for distinguishing races Many people have tried to find cutanddry biological distinctions and every one of those people have failed Race is socially constructed Race A group of people who share physical characteristics and blood line Race is assigned to you by others regardless of your preferences Race is hierarchical and exclusive It is virtually impossible to be classified in more than one racial category even if you are an even mix of races one will always dominate and you will be classified by one race only Racism The belief that different races have different and unequal characteristics Ethnicity A voluntary affiliation with a culture and its practices Ethnicity is nonhierarchical and fluid one person can easily be multiple ethnicities at any time Race and ethnicity are related but are not the same Symbolic Ethnicity The ability to step in and out of ethnicity doing so has no cost to the individual Ethnic Options As a race achieves dominance in society they have more ethnic options available to them that they can choose to identify with eg white people can be as Irish as they want on St Patty s Day Nonwhites in the US cannot escape their race White people appear to have no distinct classification so they cycle through various ethnic options while nonwhite people must stick with the same ones Racial Classification Systems Racial classification in the US is so deeply ingrained that it isn t always apparent hegemony How do we justify racial classification We use science With the rise of the scientific method in the 18005 people tried to apply the scientific method to form a systematic method of racial classification Scientific Racism Using pseudoscience to justify racism Social Darwinism Since the survival of the fittest applies in nature it must also apply to society the dominant races in society occupy dominant roles only because they truly are superior Eugenics Negative social traits are inherited through race These traits can be bred in and out of society To keep a race from spoiling those with undesirable traits should be sterilized to keep those traits from being passed down Ethnocentrism The privileging of one s own group and its practices above others Ethnocentrism involves looking at other cultures through the lens of one s own culture which frames the practices of other cultures in a way that makes them distinctly theirs not ours When engaging in ethnocentrism the things of others are often weird and undesirable to us because our culture believes so so we do not give the practices of other cultures a chance Rather than learning engaging and understanding we discount them as weird Avoiding ethnocentrism requires a person to come into a cultural situation with preconceived notions of the differences between cultures that will be encountered in that situation Racial Categories The Census The racial categories of the census have varied widely These classifications can often alienate entire groups and can change on simple political whims eg want to have good relations with Mexico but don t want to classify Latinos as a race because you don t think they are actually people Make them white Marking yourself as multiple races only recently became an option not being able to do so was a problem for many mixedrace people Classifying yourself as certain races can give you certain benefits Native Americans for instance are often given preferential treatment in college admissions and scholarships
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