SOC 204 Week 9 Lecture Notes
SOC 204 Week 9 Lecture Notes SOC 204
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Scott Morrison on Thursday May 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 204 at University of Oregon taught by Dr. C.J. Pascoe in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 115 views. For similar materials see Intro Sociology in Social Science at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 05/28/15
SOC 204 Lecture Notes Week 9 Race lcont The way racial groups are formed and defined are based off of the legacies of racism Pluralism Valuing and appreciating differences in groups and celebrating the coexistence of those groups embracing diversity Folks in the US like to think of themselves as a pluralist society but really we operate on segregation prejudice and discrimination Segregation Legalsocial separation of people based on race or ethnicity Can be overt or subtle There are laws against segregation but it still exists and reproduces itself Prejudice Thoughts and feelings that one racialethnic group is betterworse than another Discrimination Negative behaviorsactions towards a particular racialethnic group Old Racism Humans are divided into separate bloodlines These bloodlines have differing physical qualitiesintellectual abilities Old racism is the thinking that underlied the Holocaust the distinct defining of Jews as a race not a religion is a result of old racism Old racism involves legal and cultural discrimination New Racism Much more subtle than old racism we have the civil rights act now so we can t discriminate as outwardly as we used to New racism does not involve direct intentionally racist commentsactions like old racism does new racism is unconscious a lot of the time New racism is a deep part of a person s identity new racism even shapes sexual preferences Many people are uncomfortable with the idea of dating someone who is not a member of their own race but do not see themselves as racist this is a manifestation of new racism Controlling Images Media magazines newspapers etc that makes racism seem natural and inevitable Often black men are hypersexualized and cast as a sexual threat to white women Controlling images affect our unconscious mind and shape how we think Institutionalized Racism Messages about race that are subtly repeated in society regardless of our true beliefs Unconscious Bias When we believe controlling images this can have severe effects on people such as armed police officers Unconscious bias in a life or death setting has resulted in many black men being shot for no reason Racism is so deeply rooted that it influences how we decide who is a criminal Stereotype Threat When a member of a minority group is reminded of a negative stereotype of their group their behavior is affected For example when taking an exam black students perform worse if they are told in advance that white students tend to perform better When not given this information this effect is not present Residential Segregation Roosevelt s New Deal provided a lot of racial segregation It set up housing projects cheap apartments for those with little money but these housing projects were racially segregated One was for blacks and one for whites The New Deal also created subsidized neighborhoods suburbs made up of houses that could only be sold to white people This created governmentsponsored white flight white people moved to these nicer but still cheapish houses while black people had to remain in the apartments The value of these suburbs increased hugely resulting in a large expansion of wealth for white people while black people were still stuck in the cheap apartments they were originally given Further the government created zoning laws that moved government services like trash pickup out of predominantly black neighborhoods worsening their condition Health Gap Along with the wealth gap between blacks and whites there is also a health gap Black people tend to have less access to health care Justice Gap If you are white and someone wrongs you justice is more likely to be served than it would if you were black Deviance Deviance Attitudes behaviors or conditions that a society defines as socially unacceptable going against the social norms of a group Inequality is reproduced through deviance in two ways Privilege and hegemony Privilege deviants are not allowed as any privileges sometimes rights as nondeviants and so inequality is generated For example to be Native American is to have a condition an aspect you cannot change that is deviant Native Americans because they are considered deviants are not given as many privileges as white people Hegemony The way that those in power convince others to buy into definitions of what is deviant These definitions are often not in the best interests of everyone to believe in that s what hegemony is all about and that is how the rich and powerful stay rich and powerful By changing the definitions of deviance social change can be suppressed This has been observed in things like radio censorship language on the radio was only an issue when a black woman Sarah Jones quotYour Revolution used sexual language to promote feminism Before that all language was acceptable on the radio but the definition of deviance was changed and the social change was suppressed How do things come to be defined as deviant Not all deviance is equal some things are deviant in only some contexts or in only some cultures which means the definitions of deviance must be socially constructed there is a process involved Nothing is inherently universally deviant Not all deviance is crime and not all crime is deviance How to violate a social norm Attitude Having different beliefs than the social norm Behavior Having different behaviors than the social norm Conditions Having a condition a characteristic that you cannot change that differs from the social norm eg being disabled The Process of Defining Deviance A social norm needs to be present Someone needs to violate that norm An audience must see a violation 4 The audience needs to respond negatively WN Without all four of these steps the violator might not be labeled as a deviant they engaged in deviant behavior but this does not necessarily mean that society will label them as a deviant Not all deviance is equal some things are deviant in only some contexts or in only some cultures which means the definitions of deviance must be socially constructed Analytic Categories of Deviance Societal vs Situational Societal This perspective puts deviance at a societal level an action is deviant in the whole of society Situational While a society has general norms an action can be deviant or not depending on the context Absolutist vs Relativist Absolutist Some actions are universally wrong They have nothing to do with norms they are morally wrong in all contexts Devious behavior is harmful to people no harm no deviance Relativist There is no universal definition of what is and is not deviant it is necessary to take into account the context culture etc What Deviance is NOT Not all deviance is equal Not all deviance illicits the same type or intensity of response Deviance is not about morality it is a statement about what is and is not accepted in a society not morals Deviance is not unusual Something being unusual does not automatically classify it as deviance Deviance is not always negative positive deviance exists and there are different responses to it l C quot94 W AAWS 9 EV Different Responses to Different Deviances MFWJVW 6W5 0 V nioupnru Q Rm IBMJ quot5 F 0 om39kna PoSiHV c DatumCe DAIka AAW39 J i m Depending on if one overconforms or underconforms to social norms there can be different responses from society Negative Deviance When a person underconforms to social norms does something bad like murder and society responds negatively the action will be labeled as negative deviance Deviance Admiration When a person underconforms but society responds positively An example of this would be a show in which the main character is a criminal They do bad stuff but you still cheer them on because they are the main character Rate Busting When a person overconforms follows social norms too closely but makes everyone feel bad about their own levels of conformity society responds negatively This is called rate busting Positive Deviance When a person overconforms but society responds positively An example of this would be Mother Teresa if you ignore the abortion politics Sociological Approaches to Deviance Functionalism Deviance is inevitable and necessary Deviance is needed to form social identities it helps separate us from them Doing so allows us to reaffirm our own social identity and in doing so unites society When a person engages in devious activity they violate the collective conscience the common set of norms and beliefs of a society The violator is then put through a commitment ceremony a huge event of public humiliation in which the violator s actions are made known to the society allowing the society to unite in labeling the violator as a deviant
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