ESRM 101 Quiz 5 Notes
ESRM 101 Quiz 5 Notes ESRM 101
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nick Hovorka on Sunday June 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ESRM 101 at University of Washington taught by Kristiina Vogt in . Since its upload, it has received 525 views. For similar materials see Environmental Science in Environmental Science at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 06/07/15
526 32 Indian reservations in Washington today 0 10 federally unrecognized tribes 0 Total Population of tribes 200000 Coastal Tribes 0 Widespread Settlement 6th18th centuries Common and shared territories Most warfare was defensive Extensive trade W Red Cedar Long Houses Diet consisted of Salmon other sh shell sh seal whale water fowl roots bulbs berries nuts 0 Cedar clothing Plateau Tribes 0 10000 BCE 18041806 Lewis and Clark Expedition 1860 s70 s The Indian Wars Pit houses Warfare was more widespread Readily adopted the horse Salmon deer elk bison berries potatoes 0 Tipi replaced pit housing and is very portable More recent views of natural resource management tends to exclude human behavior 0 A Western ethos of taming the wild The original forest mosaic patches meadows grasslands was not independent of human interaction Indian interactions with the forest Stimulate plant growth for edible foods Kill insects diseases and weeds Increase visibility war Facilitate Travel Remove dense brush Promote waterfowl habitat To create fue char Weapon of war Garbage disposal Trail blazing Communication Create Meadows HunUng Food preparation 00000 000000 0 OOOOOOOOOOOOO Even though native americans regarded as quothuntersgatherersquot had extensive husbandry practices to encourage growth of valuable resources Human induced res were set at opportune times for maximum plant stimulation AND at times that the re could be easily managed Primarily in the spring Natural res occur in the summer when it is dry Reduced humidity leads to atmospheric static which leads to lightning and res American forests share being entirely free from underwood or brushwood Rigorous ungulate elk moose bison management by American Indians kept populations low amp prevented habitat destruction by large populations of ungulates Without American Indian hunters Yellowstone s expanding elk population destroyed willowaspen communities which beaver need for food and dam building materials Native Americans encouraged beaver populations 0 Prior to early 18005 millions of beaver lived in the West 0 Beaver so abundant in 1825 Peter SkeneOgden s party trapped 511 beavers in 5 days 0 In 1829 same brigade took 1800 in a month Repercussions of the US government policy to exterminate the buffalo mid 1800 o Defeat the Native Americans and force them onto reservations where tribes became dependent on the US government for food clothing and open grasslands for domesticated cattle and for agriculture Today controversy is frequently generated when sanctioned hunts are scheduled particularly for sensitive populations such as bison elk moose and wolves oPast Bison hearding Plains lndians would blaze grasslands to encourage bison to graze near camps Utilization of resources 0 Food and Medicines 0 Housing 0 Day to Day activities 0 Ceremonial 0 Arts Forest Products Cultural Foods 0 Dark blue berries actually swollen sepals are edible and ef ciently suppress appetite 527 Used as a sweetener 0 Red Cedar Used in construction decay resistant Used in clothing ropes screens 0 Red Alder Pioneer species and is a Nitrogen xer Medicinal oils treat poison oak and insect bites Has shown to treat some cancers 0 Engelmann Spruce Spruce bud tips edible High in vitamin C Used in construction 0 Lodge pole Pine Used in tipi amp long housing construction 0 Ponderosa Pine Used in construction Edible bark liner Various dyes Medicinal Over the last 40 to 50 years re has come to be recognized has integral to forest health and further extensive re suppression has lead to increasingly more unhealthy forests Timber harvesting to stimulate historical disturbances 0 Can restore some of the forest mosaic 0 Provides alternative timber resources for economic gain amp jobs 0 Safer for forests that have been encroached upon 0 Loses much of the bene ts of ame induction Proscribed burns 0 Mixed results 0 Political push back because of expense 0 Generally the public only sees res as being destructive Many colonies formed by European colonialists principally as business ventures England s colonizing in large part due to use of character companies groups of stockholders usually merchants and wealthy landowners who sough personal economic gain British military in charge of conquering other countries and resources everything could be sold money rules all Impacts of EuroAmerican settlers conquering America o EuroAmerican economic development ourished based on collecting resources abundant in the landscapes that used to belong to the Native Americans 0 Ownership of natural resources fundamentally change EuroAmericans have different views of property rights compared to Native Americans who view property as something they use not own Over exploitation was the norm 0 Native Americans were squeezed to a small fraction of their former lands that they had to survive from Major factors in the growth of America include a large uni ed market a supportive politicallegal system vast areas of highly productive farmlands vast natural resources especially timber coal iron and oil and an entrepreneurial spirit and commitment to investing in material and human capital America had abundant natural resources because Native Americans had not overexploited their resources like what occurred in Europe Indian reservation lands were historically undesirable and deemed worthless 0 Despite all of this the tribal business model persisted 0 Before settlers arrived Native Americans had developed trading routes and sophisticated economies Unbeknownst to EuroAmerican settlers reservation lands are rich in economic resources needed by a growing economy Today valuable resources exist on reservations such as coal gas oil timber water and valuable minerals o 30of the strippable lowsulfur coals west of the Mississippi River 0 5060 of the uranium resources in the US 0 5 of the US oil and gas reserves 0 Signi cant amounts of timber in forests All Native American business plans designed to consider life and livelihood of 7 generations beyond individuals making decisions Since business activities occur within boundaries of tribal lands they will live with the decisions they make both good and bad on a daily basis 39they have skin in the game Conserving way of life and the environment for the future is more important than having nancial gain now Languages are the manner in which tribal member linkt nature so any decision cannot impact the survival and restoration of tribal languages Native American world view 0 Historically elders were the repository of knowledge and experience Many timber tribes are very dependent upon selling trees for economic return 0 They are impacted by global markets since it determines if there are buyers of timber last couple of years have been really bad for these tribes Coquille Indian Tribe Oldest and largest familyowned enterprise on Oregon s South Coast Economic impact have to pass cultural criteria 0 Building community 0 Building tourism 0 Local economic impact Nature has boombust cycles at unpredictable times but western world societies try to mute these in their business plans Nature is cycicay volatile driven by climate changes especially drought 0 Result Nature and natural resources have boom and bust cycles that humans tend to ignore even though this is common 0 A severe drought in southern Great Plains is fueling a massive cattle drive north that is pushing beef prices higher and threatening to alter the country s production of red meat Western World Environment Economic models respond to social boombust cycles by shifting who is a producer and who is a consumer Wood is a global product continues to be an important product eventoday Local producers cant control the consumers and drivers for who buys your product Many small businesses using western world model fai Talebs Rules for successful businesses under volatile conditions 1 Think of the economy as being antifragile like a cat more than fragile like a washing machine 2 Favor businesses that bene t from their own mistakes not those whose mistakes percolate into the system 3 Small is beautiful but it is also efficient 4 Trial and error beats academic knowledge 5 Decision makers must have skin in the game People who are specialists will have a harder time surviving under the boomandbust cycles 61 What difference does it make what our views of nature are 0 Since it affects the tradeoffs and choices we make related to the environment and resources consumed by society it matters a lot Western World View until recent times 0 Nature needed to be controlled 0 Wild animals need to be kept separate from humans LOOK BUT NOT TOUCH 0 Nature was idealized revered or its beauty and not for the animals that could bite kill or maim humans 0 Wild amp dangerous animals not considered important to sustain nature most not considered important to sustain nature most are predators that eat other animals 0 You need borders around nature amp to control nature for your own purpose and bene ts 0 Borders and walls are a huge part of western world view of nature 0 Only utilitarian approach to nature doesn t work since it contributes to us being a tourist in nature Resurgence of wildlife in the US has led to an increase in con ict between wildlife and people Why are predators rebounding and expanding into human built environments 0 Landscapes greener with forest lands 0 Cities contain tree cover and plenty of deer food Coyotes once restricted to the prairie states now live from Panama to Alaska including a booming population in downtown Chicago Original European colonists eliminated predators Why so many bears in the town in Colorado 0 Bears need 20000 calories per day in the late summer and can eat the same kinds of food we do 0 Huge home ranges Huge cost to try and advocate wildlife birth control How to move beyond old value paradigms 0 Move beyond a tourist value for nature to a borderless nature 0 Become the alpha male and stray from the pack 0 Become a web and ecosystem thinker Tribes view nature as a whole everything has a soul from a person to a rock Nature as a Cat 0 Always lands on its feet in boombust cycles 0 Cats have a skin in the game since the survive so many disturbances Nature as a washing machine 0 Arti cial nature where replace parts when it doesn t work 0 Society doesn t have skin in the game when it doesn t work they just get another one substitution We continue a herding mentality in decision making since there is safety in a crowd Only a small part of nature is beautiful some of nature is not pretty but even dead nature should still be protected and managed Even when forest were overexploited some companies practiced 39social forestry by building local communities Lake Sawyer Lawyer Company did other things than just sell lumber provided many services and activities for its employees it supported a community amp way of life for dozens of people 0 Dances were held bc social life is important and causes people to have skin in the game In order to manage a forest a balance must be established between the massive clear cutting of olden times and the newer views of letting the forest be neutral Park managers typically regarded nearby communities as a source of illegal logging poaching and other problems not as part of the solution Local people in turn see the parks as a threat to their crops and livestock as well as a usurpation of their traditional land rights Nepal poaching and deforestation have caused a sharp decline in the tiger population 0 Where local communities were involved in management tiger population went up 63 More governments are empowering indigenous communities to become conservation and forest managers in collaboration with national level managers Globally today indigenous communities already control 0 40 of the land in Namibia 0 50 in Mexico 0 90 in Papua New Guinea Local communities succeed at achieving conservation goals 0 Don t over exploit resources or wildlife 0 Switch prey when a particular species became endangered and thus harder to catch and collect The rst Australians worked a complex system of land management with re their biggest ally and drew on the life cycles of plants and the natural ow of water to ensure plentiful wildlife and plant foods throughout the year they managed the biggest estate on Earth 0 Lizards are abundant after burning 0 Short green grass attracted kangaroos and made them feel safe 0 Aborigines followed bees back to their hive 63 What we39ve learned Enironmental Justice Yale 360 tradeoffs Monday questions in the article Top Hat Approximately 13 of ecosystems worldwide are under protected status Human built environments represent suitable habitat for many wildlife species including some top predators Local communities bordering parks are generally regarded as sources of illegal poaching and logging and they see the parks as a threat to crops and livestock When local communities began being integrated in habitat and species management in Nepal in 2009 local populations of tiger increased signi cantly Infrastructure and traditional sacred areas of the Spokane tribe were lost along the river due to the creation of the Grand Coulee Dam
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