MUS 121 Week 1 Notes
MUS 121 Week 1 Notes MUS 121
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Counce on Monday June 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MUS 121 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Noel Engebretson in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 927 views. For similar materials see in Language at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 06/08/15
Rachel Counce Assessment 1 Music 121 Chapter 6 The Birth of Opera Baroque Opera Opera a drama set to music and made up of vocal pieces such as recitatives arias duets trios and ensembles with orchestral accompaniment and orchestral overtures and interludes Began in Italy with the Florentine camerata Italian for quotsociety of friends Scenery stage action and costuming are employed Sought to recapture the spirit of Greek drama although scholars have since proven that roles were not sung in Greek drama Used a single prevailing voice over accompaniment called monody Followed the accented patterns the text would have had if it were spoken Singer accompanied by harmonies played by a combination of instruments called basso continuo Generally based on Greek legends or Roman history Often composed in the vernacular Was originally an art form for the aristocracy and nobility but with the advent of public opera houses became a popular form of entertainment for the middle classes and aristocrats Basso continuo continuous bass Castrato a male singer who was castrated before puberty so that his voice would remain high Castratos often sang hero roles and were hired by the Catholic Church who did not want women singing in church service Chorus a vocal ensemble consisting of several voice parts with four or five or more singers in each section a section of the orchestra comprising certain types of instruments Coloratura a high female soprano voice capable of singing fast florid ornaments Counter tenor a male singer who develops his high vocal range to be able to sing parts otherwise appropriate for a castrato or woman Ground bass a bass line that constantly repeats a short melody Baroque Vocal Styles Primary goal is to be understood by the audience Recitative combination of singing and speech that served as dialogue in baroque operas and other related works rhythm is dictated by the natural inflection of the words 0 Flexible and dictated by the natural inflection of the words 0 When accompanied by basso continuo instruments alone it was called secco recitative Rachel Counce Assessment 1 0 When accompanied by continuo with other instruments it was called accompanied recitative Arioso more lyrical style of singing a more melodic and expressive type of recitative Aria a composition for solo voice and instrumental companion was an expansion of ariosostyled singing Threepart form ABA Claudio Monteverdi 15671643 Monteverdi was the first composer to embrace the operatic form and is considered the father of modern opera Member of Florentine Camerata Peri wrote the first opera Monteverdi wrote the second and overpowered Peri s Orpheus and Eurydice Orfeo Libretto the text of an opera or similar extended dramatic musical work Many librettists have changed opera plots to fit the tastes of their audiences Opera Outside of Italy Often composed in the vernacular but sometimes in Italian outside of Italy Henry Purcell 16591695 Dido and Aeneas by Purcell quotThy Hand Belinda Italian style had less influence in France Handel Oratorio Messiah Jean Baptiste Lully developed a style of opera that included more dance and simpler arias than Italian operas Chapter 8 Oratorio Oratorios and Passions Oratorios a dramatic work for chorus solo voices and orchestra written in the vernacular and contain a recitative aria and arioso 0 Unlike opera it does not include scenery costumes or stage action Similar to the cantata in many ways except it is longer and performed on a much larger scale Developed as part of the Roman Catholic Church s efforts for reform after protestant reformation Primarily used to teach biblical stories along with entertainment Oratorios used to tell the story of the crucifixion ofJesus Christ were called Passions and were usually named for the gospel writer whose text was used Passions could only use text from the Bible or additional nonBiblical texts o All Passions are oratorios but not all oratorios are Passions 0 JS Bach St Matthew Passion aria and recitative Oratorio Passion Rachel Counce Assessment 1 George Frideric Handel 16851759 Traveled from Germany to study opera composition in Italy returned to Hanover Germany and eventually settled in England Popularity stemmed from operas Rodrigo and Agrippina Known for English oratorio Messiah proceeds from the performance were given to charhy Messiah Messiah is a nondramatic oratorio in which the chorus dominates narrating and describing the events Based on the life ofJesus Composed in only 24 days One of the most loved and popular pieces in the history of Western Civilization the famous Hallelujah chorus is part of the performance and most audience members still stand up through it as did King George II in 1743 Structured in 3 parts and fiftythree movements 0 Part deals with the prophecy of the coming of the Messiah and his birth Part II the sacrifice ofJesus and the salvation of humanity through his suffering and death Part III redemption through Christianity Overture introduces the work sometimes called a sinfonia Chapter 9 Baroque Solo and Chamber Music Keyboard Music Organ and Harpsichord are most widely used Keyboard pieces appeared in various titles toccata fantasia and prelude Toccata implies a piece full of scale passages rapid runs and trills and massive chords Fantasia a piece characterized by displays of virtuosity that made it seem to the listener that the music was being spontaneously flowing from the player Prelude generally free in form and improvisatory in style customarily introduced another piece 0 Often used as an introduction to fugue Fugue and Suite Fugue based on the polyphonic development of a melody called the subject melodic subject is presented and developed in a variety of ways Composed of a certain number of voice parts melodies that are often played by individual musical instruments or by a single instrument that can play several notes and melodies at the same time The initial section of every fugue follows a plan that is more or less standard a section called the exposition Fugues often appeared in keyboard instrumental and vocal works Rachel Counce Assessment 1 Countersubject contrasting melody new melodic material stated in counterpoint with the subject Episodes a transitional passage based on material derived from the subject or based on new material leading to a new statement of the subject 0 Primary musical interest of the fugue lies in remembering the subject and being able to identify it later 0 Features an uninterrupted steady flow of music Exposition the first section in sonata form containing the statements of the principle theme the first section in a fugue in which the principle theme or subject is presented imitatively Suite a piece of music that can stand by itself or be paired with some type of introductory piece such as a prelude or toccata multimovement works a series of instrumental movements each based on a particular dance rhythm o A typical suite included the German allemande the French courante and the sarabande originally a rather erotic dance from Spain but changed to a slow courtly dance by the French and Germans and the French bourr e and ended with the English or Irish gigue jig many suites also included the French gavotte and at times nondance movements such as an introductory prelude o Suites were composed for almost any solo instrument or group of instruments including orchestras Chorale tunes were an important part of literature written for the organ Baroque Fugue Fugue term for a piece that treats one theme in continuous imitative counterpoint o Begins with a statement of the subject the main theme and then continues with an answer restatement of the subject in a different but closely related key in all voices a composition that uses imitative polyphony and is organized around the returns of a theme or subject and a counter melody that often appears with it Subject the principle theme introduced first in a single voice and then imitated in other voices returning frequently during the course of the composition Fugues can have more than one subject but one subject is more common Sometimes periods of free composition called episodes are inserted between statements of the subject Most fugues from this era were written in four voices but could be written in 2 or more voices The first section of the fugue is called the exposition which ends when all of the voices have stated the subject Baroque Sonata Sonata term applied to instrumental pieces that varied greatly in structure character and the number and type of instruments an instrumental work consisting of three or four contrasting movements Rachel Counce Assessment 1 Distinction between sonata de chiesa sonata written for church and sonata de camera intended to be played in a room at home or palace o The sonata da camera became essentially a dance suite and the sonata da chiesa a fourmovement work in which the movements alternated in tempo slowfastslowfast Three types of sonatas were predominant o The sonata for unaccompanied instrument 0 The solo sonata for a solo instrument usually the violin and continuo o The trio sonata usually employing two violins for the upper voices with a cello and keyboard instrument for the continuo Corelli Vivaldi Handel and Bach all made important contributions to the sonata Hterature ElisabethClaude Jacquet de la Guerre 16651729 Composed music for one ballet one opera several cantatas and a few songs as well as harpsichord music and both trio and solo sonatas Played for King Louis XIV dedicated music to him for his support Chapter 10 The Baroque Orchestra Orchestra First orchestras were used to accompany singers in baroque operas cantatas and oratorios Royalty and other wealthy families hired these musicians for entertainment purposes Concertos the pitting of soft sounds against loud ones fit the interest in contrasts central to the arts of the baroque period a work for one or more solo instruments and orchestra Concerto grosso a multimovement work for instruments in which a solo group called the concertino and a full ensemble called the ripieno are pitted against each other Solo concerto the relatively soft sound of an individual solo instrument opposes that of an orchestra a multimovement baroque work that differs from concerto grosso in that the concertino consists of only one instrument Ritornello is Italian for return or repetition a characteristic form for the first and sometimes the last movement of the concerto grosso o The thematic material given to the ripieno returns between the passages played by the soloists Virtuoso a performer with complete technical control of the playing of his or her musical instrument Rachel Counce Assessment 1 Concerto Grosso and Solo Concerto Concerto grosso is a multimovement work in which a small group of solo instruments called the concertino and the full orchestra called the ripieno Italian for quotfullquot are contrasted The basic structure and number of movements varies o Threemovement structure is the most commonly used outline Bach spent time providing music for court orchestras Bach completed six works dedicated to Christian Ludwig of Brandenburg they have become known as the Brandenburg concertos Harpsichord a musical instrument that has metal strings that run parallel to the long side of the body which are plucked to be played 0 Couple the keyboards so that playing on one will cause both keyboards to work and sound both sets of strings together this causes it to be louder o Lute stop deadens the strings to make them sound more like a lute The desire for more contrast led to the development of solo concerto Antonio Vivaldi 16781741 One of the most prolific composers of baroque solo concertos Became known as the Red Priest Worked in an orphanage as a violin teacher and composer the orchestra at the orphanage became so popular they were asked to perform at courts Best known for over five hundred concertos many sonatas and largescale vocal works including operas and cantatas Le Quattro Stagione Four Seasons was most famous for the extramusical inspiration tried to depict through music the feelings and sounds of the changing seasons The Four Seasons are an early example of baroque descriptive or program music Program music instrumental music associated with a nonmusical idea this idea often being stated in the title or in an explanatory program note