ARCH 150 Textbook Notes
ARCH 150 Textbook Notes ARCH 150
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Angel Lee on Tuesday June 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ARCH 150 at University of Washington taught by Ann Huppert in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 251 views. For similar materials see Architecture 150 in Architecture at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 06/09/15
Architecture Textbook Notes Chapter 1 Beginnings of Architecture A Prehistoric Settlements and Megalith Constructions 1 Eastern Europe a Catal Huyuk Turkey ca 6000 BC one of the earliest known urban communities The two consisted of densely packed dwellings without streets Residents gained access to dwellings across roofs High openings in the walls were used for ventilation Utilized post and lintel wood framework and mud brick walls which established a perimeter town wall 2 Western Europe a Chamber Tomb Newgrange Ireland ca 3100 BC megalith tomb This communal grave is approached through a long passage created by upright stones It was built on a hill An earthen mound covers the tomb and decorated boulders with spiral designs representing the sun surround the perimeter of the mound The construction was carefully oriented so that light from the rising sun enters through the doorway and a transom like light box and illuminates the chamber for about 15 minutes Megalith big rock Transom an opening above a door Stonehenge England ca 2500 BC megalith construction that was built in three phases Consists of trilithons erected in a circle and utilized mortise and tenon methodology The trilithons set in a U shape established the axis of avenue which passes between the perimeter stones to align with the heel stone set outside the circle B Ancient Mesopotamia l Sumerians Akkadians and NeoSumerians a White Temple Uruk Iraq ca 3500 3000 BCE Sumerian temple built on a raised platform with sloping walls made out of rubble sun dried brick from earlier buildings It is buttressed in a regular pattern Consisted of cone mosaics Buttress extra stuff attached to wall Acropolis high city Pilaster a rectangular column engaged in a wall Mosaic oor wall or ceiling decoration composed of small pieces of color glass or stone that forms a design b Ziggurat Ur Iraq ca 2100 BC NeoSumerian ziggurat that served to elevate a temple closer to the gods lts core is sundried brick Ur was a walled city with large open space and mazelike oriented cities with many courtyards Ziggurat temple elevated on a tiered arti cial mound 2 Babylonians Hittites and Assyrians a Khorsabad Iraq ca 720 BC Assyrian royal city built by Sargon ll Consisted of forti ed walls a circuitous ceremonial route from the entry to the throne ziggurat courtyards and audience hall Winged bulls with human heads guarded the entrances to the palace 3 Persians a Palace of Darius and Xerxes Persepolis Iran begun 518 BC created by at least three Persian monarchs lt displayed the architectural in uences from the Hittitesaudience chambers and animal motifs Assyrians and Egyptians hypostyle halls Most of the construction was in stone Stone columns supported wooden roof beams resting on the unique double headed capitals carved in the forms of bulls and lions Capital top of a column Hypostyle halls a hall with columns C Ancient Egypt Obelisk stone shaft 1 Early Dynastic Period and Old Kingdom Mastabas an Egyptian tomb with a at top and sloping sides built over a grave shaft 2 First Pyramids a Funerary Complex Djoser Saqqara Egypt ca 2600 BC stepped pyramid As the rst monumental stone construction in Egypt this tomb set the precedent for later pyramids of pharaohs Architect was lmhotep The court inside the tomb symbolized the eternal government unity of lower and upper Egypt The burial chamber was located under the tunnal Began as a mastaba 3 Fourth Dynasty Pyramids at Giza a Pyramids Complex Giza Egypt ca 2500 BC b Pyramid of Khufu largest pyramid that was also built the earliest Built of limestone and granite stone The interior utilized techniques such as corbeling It consisted of three burial chambers in the interior and a valley temple and causeway on the exterior It was located next to a large number of tombs including small pyramids and mastabas for the members of the court c Pyramid of Khafre pyramid built for the son of Khafre Most often distinguished by the smooth limestone casting at the apex d Pyramid of Menkaure pyramid built for the son of khafre It is the smallest of the three Each pyramid has a valley temple which was where the boat bearing the pharaoh s body would land to disembark its royal cargo A causeway connected this valley temple to the upper morturary temple at the base of the pyramid e Sphinx man headed lion carved in situ out of natural rock ledge Pier a structural element that support an arch Pharaoh Egyptian king Causeway elevated walkway 4 The Middle Kingdom 5 a Axis a line at the end of which movement terminates at a signi cant feature and thereby divides a composition into two equal parts b Colonnade a linear series of columns with entablature the new kingdom new kingdom pharaohs arranged for their bodies to be buried in concealed tombs in the Valley of the Kings where priests guarded aginst robbers a Morturary temple Hatshepsut deirelbahari Egypt ca 1470 BC architect Senmut built for the female pharaoh who was known as the divine child of Amun it consisted of rectangular piers cylindrical columns with uting and planted terraces b Temple of Amun Karnak Egypt begun ca 1550 BC dedicated to the sun god this large temple maintained a strong sense of axiality and monumental procession through all its additions It consisted of symbolic pylon gates which lined processional routes to represent the eastern mountains of Egypt through which the divine earlymorning sunlight emaciated c Pylons monumental masonry entrance gates Chapter 2 Greek World A Aegean Cultures B Minoans l Knossos Crete Greece 16001400 BC rebuilt city that was supposedly founded by King Minos The city was famous for its palace and it labyrinth Consisted of a rectangular court ceremonial rooms storage areas living accommodations connected by long corridors and staircases built around light wells a Labyrinth a building with winding or confusing pathways b Frescoes a painting executed on wall surfaces by working pigments into wet plaster c Ashlar masonry smooth stone masonry laid so that the joints are visible d Bases the lowest part of a column or pier Palace Knossos Crete Greece ca 17001400 BCE palace that consisted of a courtyard lightwell frescoes and throne room Because major ceremonial rooms were located partially underground stairs to reach them were constructed around the open shafts to bring light and fresh air to lower levels It is famous for the Queen s Megaron which was a space decorated with frescoes that included rosettes and ying dolphins Water pipes carried clean water through a series of settling tanks and siphons to supply baths and sanitary sewers carried off waste water from basins and water closets a Megaron a singlecell house in the Aegean region was most commonly found in Mycenaean architecture as a rectangular room having a central hearth and four columns supporting a roof with an atrium opening C Mycenae Greece 1500 BC the largest trading society that was led by warriorkings Graves from this period preserve a large a number of gold objects and weapons The citadel at Mycenae was built with a strong concern for defense 1 City plan The forti ed city is situated on high ground and surrounded by mountains The city was strategically situated to control major transportation routes in the vicinity 2 Lion Gate Mycenae Greece ca 16001250 BCE principal entrance to the city It was positioned so that visitors had to pass along an increasingly narrow passageway parallel to the enclosing wall allowing defenders inside the settlement ample opportunity to attack hostile forces It utilized techniques such as post and lintel and corbelling Lions are carved into the gates 3 Treasury of Atreus Mycenae Greece ca 16001250 BCE corbeled tomb assumes the shape of a beehive and consists of a triangular transom formed by corbeling All the stonework except the entranceway is covered by an earthen mound Corbel architecture was used to distribute weight on the lintel 4 Megaron Mycenae Greece ca 1600 1250 BC the palace megaron is the largest room This part of the palace was built in part on ll and there is still a splendid view out over the valley from the court in front of the megaron There are multiple other megarons inside the city D Greece Archaic Period the invention of the temple home for the gods and was based on the design of the Mycenaean megaron A temple consisted of a pronaos cella and opisthodomus The rst temples were made of mudbrick 1 Temple of Hera Olympia Greece 600 BC originally constructed with wooden peripteral columns consists of a stylobate cella pronaos and opisthodomus a Peripteral columns columns surrounding the building interior 2 Temple of Hera Paestum Italy 550 BC one of the earliest examples of Doric order The end elevation consists of nine sturdy columns with entasis capitals with attened echinus pro les and substantial abacus blocks all supporting an entablature Shadows casts by uting on the column shafts enhanced the sense of volume a Entasis change in column diameter used to visually express proportional distribution of the physical load sustained by the shaft b Fluting ower shape c Order assembly of the elements of a column d Doric the sturdiest order that was based on the proportions of a man and originated from the mainland of Greece Most oftenly used limestone i Base has none ii Capital simplest iii Shaft uted iv Entablature consists of a plain architrave a frieze with alternating metopes and triglyphs and cornice on top e lonic was lighter in character to re ect the proportions of a woman developed on the islands of the Aegean and the coast of Asia Minor Most often composed of marble i Base has one ii Capital consists of volutes scrolls iii Shaft uted iv Entablature consists of an architrave frieze and cornice with dentils that are much simpler than the Doric order In Greece the frieze was the area for sculpted reliefs f Corinthian slenderest of all had a highly decorated capital to suggest the form and proportions of a young maiden Appeared the latest out of the three orders 3 Temple of Apollo Epicurius Bassai 450425 BC lktinos architect utilized all three types of orders of columns Light shone on the cult of the statue of Apollo from an opening in the east wall This is the rst known use of the Corinthian order Greece Classical Period includes the rise and fall of the Persian empire and the revolt of the greek city states During this time Athens emerged as the leading city on the mainland and the ravaged Athenian Acropolis was rebuilt Acropolis Athens Greece 479 BC lncludes Athena polias erecthion propylaea statue of Athena Parthenon and temple of Athena Nike The buildings were built along a radii the columns a 1 Parthenon Athens 448432 BC lktinos and Callicrates Architects dedicated to Athena Polias patron goddess of the city Peripteral doric temple with lonic tributes Made of marble and housed the Delian League treasury Columns are not vertical nor same in diameter nor equidistantly spaced Sculpted gures adorned the outside and the inside Two end pediments were lled with overlifesize gures representing the birth of Athena witnessed by the gods and the contest between Athena and Posaidon for control of Athens 2 Panathenaic Procession sacred procession of Athenians bringing gifts to Athena for the victory over the Persians 3 Other Buildings on the Acropolis a Agora Athens Greece 600 BC civic and commercial center not on the acropolis b Panathenaic Way from the agora to the acropolis c Propylaea 437 BC entrance to the acropolis Dorico portico anked by projecting wings Consists of a symmetrical entranceway a fragment of the original Mycenaean forti cation wall Ionic columns and a megaron It marks the transition from the secular or profane world to the sacred one d Erectheion 420 BC regarded as the location of the contest between Athena and Poseidon The entrance to Posiedon s shrine is made through the giant order Ionic portico The height of its Ionis order results from changes in the site s terrain It consists of Ionis columns Athena s sanctuary a wooden statue of Athena and a caryatid porch Caryatid sculptures of women that were used as columns e Agora Athens Greece 600 BC panathenaic Way stoa of attalos and bouleterion f G Greece Hellenistic Period period of the disastrous Peloponnesian War The close of the classical age in Greece is generally associated with the reign of Alexander the Great The term Hellenistic is applied to the art and architecture associated with the extended empire of Alexander and his successors It shifts from staid traditions and favors showier and free interpretations such as those found in Asia Minor There was a preference for the more ornate Ionic order 1 Sanctuary of Asklepios Kos 300150 BC circular building dedicated to the son of Apollo Both gods were venerated here in a large complex dedicated to healing through exercise diet and medical care Included a stadium gymnasium a theater altars fountains and baths temples and accomodations for patients Also consisted of Doric columns and Corinthian columns and a tholus 2 H Greek City Planning 1 Athenian Agora 2 Hellenistic Cities Chapter 3 Architecture of Ancient India and Southeast Asia A B C Religions of India Early Buddhist Shrines Hindu Temples 1 Early Buildings 2 Later Temples 3 Angkor Wat Chapter 4 The Traditional Architecture of China andJapan TWPCPquot Chinese Architectural Principles Principles of City Planning Houses and Gardens JapaneseTemple Architecture Japanese Houses and Castles Zen Buddhist Architecture and Its Derivatives Chapter 5 Roman World mT39IT39POPU Etruscan Imprints Romans Building Techniques and Materials City Planning Temples Public Buildings Residences Chapter 6 Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture Terms Indigenous Vernacular Tepee Bedouin tent Longhouse Totem pole Pueblo Adobe Tension tensile strength Compression compressive strength Post and lintel Prehistoric Dolmen Menhu Pylon Mud brick Ziggurat Bitumen Battered wall Granary Bitumen Mandala Stupa Reliquary Chaitya hall Vihara Sikhara Pagoda Stoa Bouleterion Orchestra Skene Hippodamus Arch Barrel vault Concrete Cardodecumanus Aqueduct Forum Basilica Atrium Peristyle Tabludtablero Plaza Ball court Maya Remote sensing Empire Dominion Yucatan peninsula CenotesF Stepped pyramid Confucianism Qin dynasty Qin shi huangdi Terracotta army Pounded earth Han dynasty Pottery models Relief sculpture Bracket framing Tailang framing system pillarsandbeams Chuandou system pillarsandtransverse tie beams Mountains and water shanshui landscape Stupa Pagoda Amphitheater Triumphal arch Colonnade Atrium Groin vault Flying buttress Engaged column Oculus Coffer Apse Bay Buildings and Sites Pueblo Taos New Mexico Teepee North American Great Plains Bedouin Tent North Africa Longhouse Paci c Northwest Coast Dolmen Tomb and Menhir Arrangements Carnac France Dolmen Tomb Hwasun Korea Cara Peru ca 2600 BC Ishtar Gate Babylon 600 BCE Wangcheng plan from the Mohenjo Daro Indus Valley Pakistan ca 2400 2000 BC Ur Iraq ca 35003000 BC Luoyang China 2070 BC Chang an China 6th century BC Dadu China 12641293 BC under Kubla Khan Beijing China 1403 BC Great Stupa and Monastery Sanchi India ca 250 BC Caitya Hall Karli India ca 100 BC Vihara Ajanta India 2nOI century BC 7th century BC Songyue Pagoda Dengfend 523 BC Nanchan Monastery Shangxi Province 782 BC Borobodur Indonesia 700 800 BC Lakshamana Temple Khajuraho India ca 950 CE Angkor Wat Cambodia ca 1120 CE Theater Epidauros 3502nOI century BC Paestum City Plan Italy 7th c BC Miletus City Plan Turkey 479 BC Pergamon City Plan Turkey 280130 BC Roman Republic 50927 BC Roman Empire 27 BC Arch of Augustus Perugia Italy 310 BC Coaca Maxima Rome Italy Pont du Gard Nimes France 20 BC Temple of Diana Nimes France 80 BC Etruscan City Plan City Plan Timgad Algeria 100 CE Sanctuary of Fortuna Primigenia Praeneste Italy 80 BC Pompeii Italy 6th century BC 79 CE Domus Pompeii Italy Teotihuacan Mexico 200 BC900 Ce Pyramid of the sun pyramid of the moon avenue of the dead causeway Tika Guatemala 600 BC 900 CE Chichen Itza 550800 Uxmal Yucatan 7001000 Shangling Park Xian Chang an Great Wall 221 BC 17 th century Shi Huangdi tomb near Xian 221210 BC Chang an Courtyard house Bracket system framing Songyue Pagoda Mt Song China 523 Roman Republic 509 27 BC Roman Empire 27 BC
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